Disparities in Chronic Kidney Disease Prevalence among Males and Females in 195 Countries: Analysis of the Global Burden of Disease 2016 Study

on behalf of the GBD Genitourinary Diseases Expert Group, Boris Bikbov

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) imposes a substantial burden on health care systems. There are some especially vulnerable groups with a high CKD burden, one of which is women. We performed an analysis of gender disparities in the prevalence of all CKD stages and renal replacement therapy (defined as impaired kidney function [IKF]) in 195 countries.

METHODS: We used estimates produced by the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) Study 2016 revision using a Bayesian-regression analytic tool, DisMoD-MR 2.1. Data on gross domestic product based on purchasing power parity per capita (GDP PPP) was obtained via the World Bank International Comparison Program database. To estimate gender disparities, we calculated the male:female all-age prevalence rate ratio for each IKF condition.

RESULTS: In 2016, the global number of individuals with IKF reached 752.7 million, including 417.0 million females and 335.7 million males. The most prevalent form of IKF in both groups was albuminuria with preserved glomerular filtration rate. Geospatial analysis shows a very heterogeneous distribution of the male:female ratio for all IKF conditions, with the most prominent contrast found in kidney transplant patients. The median male:female ratio varies substantially according to GDP PPP quintiles; however, countries with different economic states could have similar male:female ratios. A strong correlation of GDP PPP with dialysis-to-transplant ratio was found.

CONCLUSIONS: The GBD study highlights the prominent gender disparities in CKD prevalence among 195 countries. The nature of these disparities, however, is complex and must be interpreted cautiously taking into account all possible circumstances.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)313-318
Number of pages6
JournalNephron
Volume139
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2018

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Chronic Renal Insufficiency
Kidney
Gross Domestic Product
Transplants
Albuminuria
Renal Replacement Therapy
United Nations
Parity
Glomerular Filtration Rate
Global Burden of Disease
Dialysis
Economics
Databases
Delivery of Health Care

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Disparities in Chronic Kidney Disease Prevalence among Males and Females in 195 Countries : Analysis of the Global Burden of Disease 2016 Study. / on behalf of the GBD Genitourinary Diseases Expert Group; Bikbov, Boris.

In: Nephron, Vol. 139, No. 4, 2018, p. 313-318.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

on behalf of the GBD Genitourinary Diseases Expert Group ; Bikbov, Boris. / Disparities in Chronic Kidney Disease Prevalence among Males and Females in 195 Countries : Analysis of the Global Burden of Disease 2016 Study. In: Nephron. 2018 ; Vol. 139, No. 4. pp. 313-318.
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abstract = "BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) imposes a substantial burden on health care systems. There are some especially vulnerable groups with a high CKD burden, one of which is women. We performed an analysis of gender disparities in the prevalence of all CKD stages and renal replacement therapy (defined as impaired kidney function [IKF]) in 195 countries.METHODS: We used estimates produced by the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) Study 2016 revision using a Bayesian-regression analytic tool, DisMoD-MR 2.1. Data on gross domestic product based on purchasing power parity per capita (GDP PPP) was obtained via the World Bank International Comparison Program database. To estimate gender disparities, we calculated the male:female all-age prevalence rate ratio for each IKF condition.RESULTS: In 2016, the global number of individuals with IKF reached 752.7 million, including 417.0 million females and 335.7 million males. The most prevalent form of IKF in both groups was albuminuria with preserved glomerular filtration rate. Geospatial analysis shows a very heterogeneous distribution of the male:female ratio for all IKF conditions, with the most prominent contrast found in kidney transplant patients. The median male:female ratio varies substantially according to GDP PPP quintiles; however, countries with different economic states could have similar male:female ratios. A strong correlation of GDP PPP with dialysis-to-transplant ratio was found.CONCLUSIONS: The GBD study highlights the prominent gender disparities in CKD prevalence among 195 countries. The nature of these disparities, however, is complex and must be interpreted cautiously taking into account all possible circumstances.",
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N2 - BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) imposes a substantial burden on health care systems. There are some especially vulnerable groups with a high CKD burden, one of which is women. We performed an analysis of gender disparities in the prevalence of all CKD stages and renal replacement therapy (defined as impaired kidney function [IKF]) in 195 countries.METHODS: We used estimates produced by the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) Study 2016 revision using a Bayesian-regression analytic tool, DisMoD-MR 2.1. Data on gross domestic product based on purchasing power parity per capita (GDP PPP) was obtained via the World Bank International Comparison Program database. To estimate gender disparities, we calculated the male:female all-age prevalence rate ratio for each IKF condition.RESULTS: In 2016, the global number of individuals with IKF reached 752.7 million, including 417.0 million females and 335.7 million males. The most prevalent form of IKF in both groups was albuminuria with preserved glomerular filtration rate. Geospatial analysis shows a very heterogeneous distribution of the male:female ratio for all IKF conditions, with the most prominent contrast found in kidney transplant patients. The median male:female ratio varies substantially according to GDP PPP quintiles; however, countries with different economic states could have similar male:female ratios. A strong correlation of GDP PPP with dialysis-to-transplant ratio was found.CONCLUSIONS: The GBD study highlights the prominent gender disparities in CKD prevalence among 195 countries. The nature of these disparities, however, is complex and must be interpreted cautiously taking into account all possible circumstances.

AB - BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) imposes a substantial burden on health care systems. There are some especially vulnerable groups with a high CKD burden, one of which is women. We performed an analysis of gender disparities in the prevalence of all CKD stages and renal replacement therapy (defined as impaired kidney function [IKF]) in 195 countries.METHODS: We used estimates produced by the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) Study 2016 revision using a Bayesian-regression analytic tool, DisMoD-MR 2.1. Data on gross domestic product based on purchasing power parity per capita (GDP PPP) was obtained via the World Bank International Comparison Program database. To estimate gender disparities, we calculated the male:female all-age prevalence rate ratio for each IKF condition.RESULTS: In 2016, the global number of individuals with IKF reached 752.7 million, including 417.0 million females and 335.7 million males. The most prevalent form of IKF in both groups was albuminuria with preserved glomerular filtration rate. Geospatial analysis shows a very heterogeneous distribution of the male:female ratio for all IKF conditions, with the most prominent contrast found in kidney transplant patients. The median male:female ratio varies substantially according to GDP PPP quintiles; however, countries with different economic states could have similar male:female ratios. A strong correlation of GDP PPP with dialysis-to-transplant ratio was found.CONCLUSIONS: The GBD study highlights the prominent gender disparities in CKD prevalence among 195 countries. The nature of these disparities, however, is complex and must be interpreted cautiously taking into account all possible circumstances.

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