Accessibility of the genomic regulatory information is largely controlled by the nucleosome-organizing activity of transcription factors (TFs). While stimulus-induced TFs bind to genomic regions that are maintained accessible by lineage-determining TFs, they also increase accessibility of thousands of cis-regulatory elements. Nucleosome remodeling events underlying such changes and their interplay with basal positioning are unknown. Here, we devised a novel quantitative framework discriminating different types of nucleosome remodeling events in micrococcal nuclease ChIP-seq (chromatin immunoprecipitation [ChIP] combined with high-throughput sequencing) data sets and used it to analyze nucleosome dynamics at stimulus-regulated cis-regulatory elements. At enhancers, remodeling preferentially affected poorly positioned nucleosomes while sparing well-positioned nucleosomes flanking the enhancer core, indicating that inducible TFs do not suffice to overrule basal nucleosomal organization maintained by lineage-determining TFs. Remodeling events appeared to be combinatorially driven by multiple TFs, with distinct TFs showing, however, different remodeling efficiencies. Overall, these data provide a systematic view of the impact of stimulation on nucleosome organization and genome accessibility in mammalian cells.
- Cells, Cultured
- Chromatin Immunoprecipitation
- High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing
- Mice, Inbred C57BL
- Micrococcal Nuclease/metabolism
- Regulatory Elements, Transcriptional/physiology
- Transcription Factors/metabolism