Distinct Mechanisms Are Responsible for Nrf2-Keap1 Pathway Activation at Different Stages of Rat Hepatocarcinogenesis

Claudia Orrù, Andrea Perra, Marta Anna Kowalik, Sabrina Rizzolio, Elisabetta Puliga, Lavinia Cabras, Silvia Giordano, Amedeo Columbano

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Activation of the Nrf2-Keap1 pathway, the main intracellular defense against environmental stress, has been observed in several human cancers, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Here, we assessed whether distinct mechanisms of activation may be involved at different stages of hepatocarcinogenesis. We adopted an experimental model consisting of treatment with diethylnitrosamine (DENA) followed by a choline-devoid methionine-deficient (CMD) diet for 4 months. The CMD diet was then replaced with a basal diet, and the animals were killed at 6, 10 or 13 months after DENA injection. Nrf2 activation occurred at early steps of hepatocarcinogenesis and persisted throughout the tumorigenic process. While Nrf2 mutations were extremely frequent at early steps (90%), their incidence diminished with the progression to malignancy (25%). Conversely, while p62 was almost undetectable in early nodules, its accumulation occurred in HCCs, suggesting that Nrf2 pathway activation at late stages is mainly due to Keap1 sequestration by p62. We demonstrate that, in a model of hepatocarcinogenesis resembling human non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, Nrf2 mutations are the earliest molecular changes responsible for the activation of the Nrf2-Keap1 pathway. The progressive loss of mutations associated with a concomitant p62 accumulation implies that distinct mechanisms are responsible for Nrf2-Keap1 pathway activation at different stages of hepatocarcinogenesis.

Original languageEnglish
JournalCancers
Volume12
Issue number8
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Aug 16 2020

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