Distinctive morphological and molecular features of urothelial carcinoma with an inverted growth pattern

Francesca Sanguedolce, Beppe Calò, Marco Chirico, Ugo Falagario, Gian Maria Busetto, Magda Zanelli, Alessandra Bisagni, Maurizio Zizzo, Stefano Ascani, Giuseppe Carrieri, Luigi Cormio

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Urothelial carcinoma with an inverted growth pattern (UC-IGP) is a peculiar entity within the spectrum of urothelial lesions. While efforts have been made over the last few decades to unravel its carcinogenesis and relationship with conventional urothelial carcinoma, the exact classification of inverted urothelial lesions is a matter of debate. The morphological features of UC-IGP pose several issues in differential diagnosis with other mostly benign lesions. Various techniques, including immunohistochemistry, UroVysion, and many molecular methods, have been employed to study the exact nature of this lesion. The aim of this review is to provide a comprehensive overview of the morphological and immunophenotypical aspects of UC-IGP. Moreover, we present and discuss the immunohistochemical and molecular markers involved in diagnosis and prognosis of UC-IGP lesions.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)239-246
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Pathology and Translational Medicine
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2021


  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Inverted growth pattern
  • Molecular markers
  • Urothelial carcinoma

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pathology and Forensic Medicine
  • Histology


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