Diurnal and 24-h Intraocular Pressures in Glaucoma: Monitoring Strategies and Impact on Prognosis and Treatment

Anastasios G. Konstas, Malik Y. Kahook, Makoto Araie, Andreas Katsanos, Luciano Quaranta, Luca Rossetti, Gábor Holló, Efstathios T. Detorakis, Francesco Oddone, Dimitrios G. Mikropoulos, Gordon N. Dutton

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

Abstract

The present review casts a critical eye on intraocular pressure (IOP) monitoring and its value in current and future glaucoma care. Crucially, IOP is not fixed, but varies considerably during the 24-h cycle and between one visit and another. Consequently, a single IOP measurement during so-called office hours is insufficient to characterize the real IOP pathology of a patient with glaucoma. To date IOP remains the principal and only modifiable risk factor for the development and progression of glaucoma. Only by evaluating IOP characteristics (mean, peak and fluctuation of IOP) at diagnosis and after IOP-lowering interventions can we appreciate the true efficacy of therapy. Unfortunately, a major limiting factor in glaucoma management is lack of robust IOP data collection. Treatment decisions, advancement of therapy and even surgery are often reached on the basis of limited IOP evidence. Clearly, there is much room to enhance our decision-making and to develop new algorithms for everyday practice. The precise way in which daytime IOP readings can be used as predictors of night-time or 24-h IOP characteristics remains to be determined. In practice it is important to identify those at-risk glaucoma patients for whom a complete 24-h curve is necessary and to distinguish them from those for whom a daytime curve consisting of three IOP measurements (at 10:00, 14:00 and 18:00) would suffice. By employing a staged approach in determining the amount of IOP evidence needed and the rigour required for our monitoring approach for the individual patient, our decisions will be based on more comprehensive data, while at the same time this will optimize use of resources. The patient’s clinical picture should be the main factor that determines which method of IOP monitoring is most appropriate. A diurnal or ideally a 24-h IOP curve will positively impact the management of glaucoma patients who show functional/anatomical progression, despite an apparently acceptable IOP in the clinic. The potential impact of nocturnal IOP elevation remains poorly investigated. The ideal solution in the future is the development of non-invasive methods for obtaining continuous, Goldmann equivalent IOP data on all patients prior to key treatment decisions. Moreover, an important area of future research is to establish the precise relationship between 24-h IOP characteristics and glaucoma progression.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1775-1804
Number of pages30
JournalAdvances in Therapy
Volume35
Issue number11
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Nov 1 2018

Keywords

  • 24-h efficacy
  • 24-h IOP
  • Circadian IOP
  • Diurnal IOP
  • Glaucoma therapy
  • Intraocular pressure
  • IOP characteristics
  • Ophthalmology

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology (medical)

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  • Cite this

    Konstas, A. G., Kahook, M. Y., Araie, M., Katsanos, A., Quaranta, L., Rossetti, L., Holló, G., Detorakis, E. T., Oddone, F., Mikropoulos, D. G., & Dutton, G. N. (2018). Diurnal and 24-h Intraocular Pressures in Glaucoma: Monitoring Strategies and Impact on Prognosis and Treatment. Advances in Therapy, 35(11), 1775-1804. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12325-018-0812-z