Context: Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is a group of autosomal recessive disorders most often caused by enzyme 21-hydroxylase deficiency. Most mutations causing enzymatic deficiency are generated by recombinations between the active gene CYP21 and the pseudogene CYP21P. Only 1-2% of affected alleles result from spontaneous mutations. The phenotype of CAH varies greatly, usually classified as classical or nonclassical, depending on variable degree in 21-hydroxylase activity. Here we report a divergent phenotype of two human leukocyte antigen identical siblings, affected by nonclassical and classical CAH caused by 21-hydroxylase deficiency due to different genotype. Patients and Methods: Using direct sequencing method and Southern blot, we studied two children (one male and one female), affected, respectively, by nonclassical and classical CAH and their parents. Results: The mother was heterozygous for the Q318X mutation, and the father was heterozygous for the V281L mutation. The brother was a compound heterozygote for the mutations V281L and Q318X, whereas the proband was compound heterozygote for the Q318X mutation and a large conversion. The two children are human leukocyte antigen identical (A*02;B*14;DRB1*01/A*33;B*14;DRB1*03). Conclusions: Different phenotype of the proband is the result of compound heterozygosity for the maternal mutation Q318X and a de novo large conversion.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism