Dodecanedioic acid overcomes metabolic inflexibility in type 2 diabetic subjects

Serenella Salinari, Alessandro Bertuzzi, Alberto Gandolfi, Aldo V. Greco, Antonino Scarfone, Melania Manco, Geltrude Mingrone

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Metabolically healthy skeletal muscle possesses the ability to switch easily between glucose and fat oxidation in response to homeostatic signals. In type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity, the skeletal muscle shows a great reduction in this metabolic flexibility. A substrate like dodecanedioic acid (C-12), able to increase skeletal muscle glycogen stores via succinyl-CoA formation, might both postpone the fatigue and increase fatty acid utilization, since it does not affect insulin secretion. In healthy volunteers and in type 2 diabetic subjects, the effect of an oral C-12 load was compared with a glucose or water load during prolonged, moderate-intensity, physical exercise. C-12 metabolism was analyzed by a mathematical model. After C-12, diabetics were able to complete the 2 h of exercise. Nonesterified fatty acids increased both during and after the exercise in the C-12 session. C-12 oxidation provided 14% of total energy expenditure, and the sum of C-12 plus lipids oxidized after the C-12 meal was significantly greater than lipids oxidized after the glucose meal (P <0.025). The fraction of C-12 that entered the central compartment was 47% of that ingested. During the first phase of the exercise (∼60 min), the mean C-12 clearance from the central compartment toward tissues was 2.57 and 1.30 l/min during the second phase of the exercise. In conclusion, C-12 seems to be a suitable energy substrate during exercise, since it reduces muscle fatigue, is rapidly oxidized, and does not stimulate insulin secretion, which implies that lipolysis is not inhibited as reported after glucose ingestion.

Original languageEnglish
JournalAmerican Journal of Physiology - Endocrinology and Metabolism
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 2006


  • Dodecanedioic acid
  • Energy substrate
  • Mathematical modeling
  • Physical exercise

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physiology
  • Endocrinology
  • Biochemistry


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