AIMS: The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is composed of a cluster of related cardiovascular risk factors. The aim of the present study was to determine how MetS contributes to short- (30-day) and long-term complications and restenosis after carotid endarterectomy (CEA) or stenting (CAS).
METHODS: A consecutive cohort of 752 patients undergoing CEA (n = 314) and CAS (n = 438) in a single institution was examined, of which 296 (39.4%) were identified as having MetS. All patients were followed-up with carotid duplex ultrasound scan of the supraaortic vessels and a neurological assessment of symptoms status at 30-day postprocedure and at 3, 6, and 12 months, with annual follow-up thereafter for 3 years.
RESULTS: Patients with MetS had a significant increased risk in their 30-day death, major adverse events (MAE), and restenosis rates, both after CEA and after CAS (death: 0.7% vs 0.0%; MAE: 5.3% vs 2.7%; and restenosis: 1.7% vs 0.2%; p < 0.05). The MAE and restenosis rates remained statistically different at 36 months, with both procedures (29.2% vs 24.2% and 9.5% vs 3.3%, p < 0.05, for patients with and without MetS, respectively). Among the components of MetS, high fasting serum glucose, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and elevated body mass index were associated with increased risk of complications at 30 days and within 36 months.
CONCLUSIONS: The current study suggested that the presence of MetS is an important risk factor for morbidity and restenosis after CEA and CAS.