BACKGROUND: In total knee arthroplasty with patellar resurfacing, patellar bone preparation, component positioning and motion assessments are still not navigated. Only femoral/tibial component positioning is supported by computer-assistance. The aim of this study was to verify, in-vivo, whether knee surgical navigation extended to patellar resurfacing, by original instrumentation and procedures for patellar-based tracking, could achieve accurate patella preparation in terms of original thickness restoration, bone cut orientation, and normal knee motion.
METHODS: An additional navigation system for patellar data acquisition was used together with a standard navigation system for total knee arthroplasty in 20 patients. This supported the surgeon for patellar resurfacing via measurement of removed bone thickness, three-dimensional patellar cut orientations, and patello-femoral motion. Radiological and clinical examinations at 6 and 24-month follow-up were also performed.
FINDINGS: The medio-lateral patellar-bone cut orientation was respectively 0.5° (standard deviation: 3.0°) and 1.4° (1.7°) lateral tilt, as measured via navigation and post-operatively on the Merchant x-ray view. The cranio-caudal orientation was 3.8° (7.2°) of flexion. The thickness variation between patellar pre- and post-implantation was 0.2 (1.3) mm. Immediately after implantation, patello-femoral as well as tibio-femoral kinematics was within the normality. Good radiological and clinical examinations at 6 and 24-month follow-up were also observed.
INTERPRETATION: For the first time, the effect of patellar navigation for its resurfacing was assessed in-vivo during surgery, with very good results for thickness restoration, proper cut orientation, and normal knee motion. These results support the introduction of patella-related navigation-based surgical procedures for computer-assisted total knee arthroplasty.
- Computer-assisted surgery
- Patellar resurfacing
- Patello-femoral kinematics
- Surgical navigation
- Tibio-femoral kinematics
- otal knee arthroplasty