The present meta-analytic study was conducted to examine differences in temperament between preterm and full-term children, considering behavior style and psychobiological approaches. Moreover, we explored the potential moderators of the associations between prematurity and temperament. A systematic literature search was performed on PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and CINAHL. Twenty-two studies were analyzed. Preterm children showed a higher Activity level as well as lower Attentional Focusing and Attention Span/Persistence, in comparison with their full-term counterparts. Extremely preterm children showed a higher Activity level than other preterm levels. These findings support the conclusion that preterm children present with a less regulated temperament relative to those born full term.