Doping and thrombosis in sports

Giuseppe Lippi, Giuseppe Banfi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

14 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Historically, humans have long sought to enhance their athletic performance to increase body weight, aggressiveness, mental concentration and physical strength, contextually reducing fatigue, pain, and improving recovery. Although regular training is the mainstay for achieving these targets, the ancillary use of ergogenic aids has become commonplace in all sports. The demarcation between ergogenic aids and doping substances or practices is continuously challenging and mostly based on perceptions regarding the corruption of the fairness of competition and the potential side effects or adverse events arising from the use of otherwise unnecessary ergogenic substances. A kaleidoscope of side effects has been associated with the use of doping agents, including behavioral, skeletal, endocrinologic, metabolic, hemodynamic, and cardiovascular imbalances. Among the various doping substances, the most striking association with thrombotic complications has been reported for androgenic anabolic steroids (i.e., cardiomyopathy, fatal and nonfatal arrhythmias, myocardial infarction [MI], intracardiac thrombosis, stroke, venous thromboembolism [VTE], limb arterial thrombosis, branch retinal vein occlusion, cerebral venous sinus thrombosis) and blood boosting (i.e., VTE and MI, especially for epoetin and analogs). The potential thrombotic complication arising from misuse of other doping agents such as the administration of cortisol, growth hormone, prolactin, cocaine, and platelet-derived preparations is instead speculative or anecdotal at best. The present article provides an overview on the epidemiological association as well as the underlying biochemical and biological mechanisms linking the practice of doping in sports with the development of thrombosis.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)918-928
Number of pages11
JournalSeminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis
Volume37
Issue number8
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2011

Fingerprint

Doping in Sports
Thrombosis
Venous Thromboembolism
Performance-Enhancing Substances
Testosterone Congeners
Myocardial Infarction
Intracranial Sinus Thrombosis
Athletic Performance
Retinal Vein Occlusion
Cardiomyopathies
Cocaine
Venous Thrombosis
Prolactin
Growth Hormone
Sports
Fatigue
Hydrocortisone
Cardiac Arrhythmias
Blood Platelets
Extremities

Keywords

  • androgenic anabolic steroids
  • Doping
  • erythropoietin
  • sports

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Hematology
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

Cite this

Doping and thrombosis in sports. / Lippi, Giuseppe; Banfi, Giuseppe.

In: Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis, Vol. 37, No. 8, 2011, p. 918-928.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Lippi, Giuseppe ; Banfi, Giuseppe. / Doping and thrombosis in sports. In: Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis. 2011 ; Vol. 37, No. 8. pp. 918-928.
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