Dorsal onlay graft urethroplasty is a versatile procedure which may be combined with various substitute materials such as preputial skin, buccal mucosa grafts or pedicled flaps. Others substitute materials such as human urethral mucosa from corpses or collagen matrix will be possible in future. The long-term results of a wide series of patients showed a final success rate from 92% to 97%. Any kind of substitution urethroplasty deteriorate over time, and in our series of patients with an extended follow-up from 21.5 to 43 months the success rate of dorsal onlay graft urethroplasty decreased from 92% to 85%. With regard to substitute material concerns (buccal mucosa versus preputial skin) a long-term follow-up is mandatory to establish if buccal mucosa is superior to foreskin as urethral substitute material. At present, the authors currently use both according to patient preference, status of the genital tissues or strictures characteristics.
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