OBJECTIVE:: A multiarm Phase I clinical trial was performed to define the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) delivered by non-coplanar conformal beams or volumetric modulated arc therapy technique in seven predefined clinical settings.
METHODS:: The (a) and (b) arms investigated primary and metastatic lung cancer differentiated by site of onset, arm (c) included primary or metastatic lesions outside the thorax, the (d) and (e) arms were for in-field reirradiation of recurrence, and finally, the (f) and (g) arms were for boost irradiation to the lesions after an adjuvant RT prescribed dose. A 4 months cut-off after previous irradiation course was fixed to distinguish the boost from the retreatment (<4 vs >4 months, respectively). Patients were prospectively enrolled in study arms according to tumor site, clinical stage and previous treatment. The total dose prescribed to the isocenter, ranged from 20 to 50 Gy according to the protocol design and the doses per fraction ranged from 4 to 10 Gy in 5 days.
RESULTS:: A total of 281 patients (M/F: 167/114; median age: 69 years) with 376 lesions underwent SBRT. No acute toxicity was reported in 175 patients (62.3%) while 106 (37.7%) experienced only low-grade (G < 2) acute toxicity. Four patients (all previously irradiated in the same site) showed >Grade 2 toxicity within 6 months from SBRT. With a median follow-up of 19 months, 204 patients (72.6%) did not experience late toxicity, and 77 (27.4%) experienced low grade late toxicity. On per-lesion basis, the 12-and 24 months actuarial local control inside the SBRT field were 84.3 and 73.7 %, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS:: SBRT delivered in five consecutive fractions up to the doses evaluated is well tolerated. The MTD was reached in four (a, b, c and f) of the seven study arms. Recruitment for (d), (e) and (g) arms is still ongoing.
ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE:: In a prospective dose-escalation trial, the MTD of 50 Gy/10 Gy fraction and 35 Gy/7 Gy fraction were defined for primary and metastatic lesions and as boost after prior RT dose ≤50 Gy, respectively.