Double carbapenem as a rescue strategy for the treatment of severe carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae infections: A two-center, matched case-control study

Gennaro De Pascale, Gennaro Martucci, Luca Montini, Giovanna Panarello, Salvatore Lucio Cutuli, Daniele Di Carlo, Valentina Di Gravio, Roberta Di Stefano, Guido Capitanio, Maria Sole Vallecoccia, Piera Polidori, Teresa Spanu, Antonio Arcadipane, Massimo Antonelli

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background: Recent reports have suggested the efficacy of a double carbapenem (DC) combination, including ertapenem, for the treatment of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CR-Kp) infections. We aimed to evaluate the clinical impact of such a regimen in critically ill patients. Methods: This case-control (1:2), observational, two-center study involved critically ill adults with a microbiologically documented CR-Kp invasive infection treated with the DC regimen matched with those receiving a standard treatment (ST) (i.e., colistin, tigecycline, or gentamicin). Results: The primary end point was 28-day mortality. Secondary outcomes were clinical cure, microbiological eradication, duration of mechanical ventilation and of vasopressors, and 90-day mortality. Forty-eight patients treated with DC were matched with 96 controls. Occurrence of septic shock at infection and high procalcitonin levels were significantly more frequent in patients receiving DC treatment (p < 0.01). The 28-day mortality was significantly higher in patients receiving ST compared with the DC group (47.9% vs 29.2%, p = 0.04). Similarly, clinical cure and microbiological eradication were significantly higher when DC was used in patients infected with CR-Kp strains resistant to colistin (13/20 (65%) vs 10/32 (31.3%), p = 0.03 and 11/19 (57.9%) vs 7/27 (25.9%), p = 0.04, respectively). In the logistic regression and multivariate Cox-regression models, the DC regimen was associated with a reduction in 28-day mortality (OR 0.33, 95% CI 0.13-0.87 and OR 0.43, 95% CI 0.23-0.79, respectively). Conclusions: Improved 28-day mortality was associated with the DC regimen compared with ST for severe CR-Kp infections. A randomized trial is needed to confirm these observational results. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03094494. Registered 28 March 2017.

Original languageEnglish
Article number173
JournalCritical Care
Volume21
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jul 5 2017

Keywords

  • Critically ill patients
  • Double carbapenem
  • Ertapenem
  • Infections
  • Klebsiella pneumoniae
  • Meropenem
  • Multidrug-resistant bacteria

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Critical Care and Intensive Care Medicine

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