Background: Despite the great evolution of endograft devices for thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR), threatening related complication such as graft migration and endoleaks still occur during follow up. The Drag Forces (DF), that is the displacement forces that play a role in graft migration and endoleaks caused by the blood flow against the thoracic graft, can be studied by means of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). Method: A general review of papers found in current literature was performed. CFD studies available on the topic of thoracic aortic diseases and DF were analyzed. All anatomic, hemodynamics or graft related factors which could have an impact on DF were reported. Results: Different factors deeply influence DF magnitude in the different site of the Ishimaru's zones classification: angulation, tortuosity and length of the landing zone, graft diameter, length and deployment position, blood pressure, pulse waveform, blood viscosity and patient heart rate have been related to the magnitude of DF. Moreover, also the three-dimensional orientation of DF is emerging as a fundamental issue from CFD studies. DF can be divided in sideways and upward components. The former, even of higher magnitude in zone 0, maintain always an orthogonal orientation and does not change in any type of aortic arch; the latter result strictly related to the anatomic complexity of the aortic arch with values up to four times higher in zone 3. Conclusion: Different DF magnitude and orientation could explain how TEVAR have higher rate of migration and endoleaks when we face with more complex aortic anatomies. All these aspects should be foreseen during the planning of TEVAR procedure. In this field, collaboration between physicians and engineers is crucial, as both parts have a primary role in understanding and describing hidden aspects involved in TEVAR procedures.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine