Dynamic 3D scanning as a markerless method to calculate multi-segment foot kinematics during stance phase: Methodology and first application

Inge Van den Herrewegen, Kris Cuppens, Mario Broeckx, Bettina Barisch-Fritz, Jos Vander Sloten, Alberto Leardini, Louis Peeraer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Multi-segmental foot kinematics have been analyzed by means of optical marker-sets or by means of inertial sensors, but never by markerless dynamic 3D scanning (D3DScanning). The use of D3DScans implies a radically different approach for the construction of the multi-segment foot model: the foot anatomy is identified via the surface shape instead of distinct landmark points. We propose a 4-segment foot model consisting of the shank (Sha), calcaneus (Cal), metatarsus (Met) and hallux (Hal). These segments are manually selected on a static scan. To track the segments in the dynamic scan, the segments of the static scan are matched on each frame of the dynamic scan using the iterative closest point (ICP) fitting algorithm. Joint rotations are calculated between Sha-Cal, Cal-Met, and Met-Hal. Due to the lower quality scans at heel strike and toe off, the first and last 10% of the stance phase is excluded. The application of the method to 5 healthy subjects, 6 trials each, shows a good repeatability (intra-subject standard deviations between 1° and 2.5°) for Sha-Cal and Cal-Met joints, and inferior results for the Met-Hal joint (>3°). The repeatability seems to be subject-dependent. For the validation, a qualitative comparison with joint kinematics from a corresponding established marker-based multi-segment foot model is made. This shows very consistent patterns of rotation. The ease of subject preparation and also the effective and easy to interpret visual output, make the present technique very attractive for functional analysis of the foot, enhancing usability in clinical practice.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2531-2539
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Biomechanics
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - Aug 22 2014


  • 4D scanning
  • Dynamic 3D scanning
  • Foot kinematics
  • Joint rotations
  • Multi-segment foot model

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
  • Rehabilitation
  • Biophysics
  • Biomedical Engineering


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