E-cigarettes may support smokers with high smoking-related risk awareness to stop smoking in the short run: Preliminary results by randomized controlled trial

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Abstract

Introduction: E-cigarettes may be positively used in tobacco cessation treatments. However, neither the World Health Organization nor the American Food and Drug Administration has recognized them as effective cessation aids. Data about the efficacy and safety of e-cigarettes are still limited and controversial. Methods: This was a double-blind randomized controlled study. The main focus of this article is on a secondary outcome of the study, that is, the assessment of effectiveness and safety of e-cigarettes in achieving smoking cessation in a group of chronic smokers voluntarily involved in long-term lung cancer screening. Participants were randomized into three arms with a 1:1:1 ratio: e-cigarettes (Arm 1), placebo (Arm 2), and control (Arm 3). All subjects also received a low-intensity counseling. Results: Two hundred ten smokers were randomized (70 to nicotine e-cigarettes, 70 nicotine-free placebo e-cigarettes, and 70 to control groups). About 25% of participants who followed a cessation program based on the use of e-cigarettes (Arm 1 and Arm 2) were abstinent after 3 months. Conversely, only about 10% of smokers in Arm 3 stopped. A Kruskal-Wallis test showed significant differences in daily cigarettes smoking across the three arms (K-W = 6.277, p = .043). In particular, participants in Arm 1 reported a higher reduction rate (M = -11.6441, SD = 7.574) than participants in Arm 2 (M = -10.7636, SD = 8.156) and Arm 3 (M = -9.1379, SD = 8.8127). Conclusions: Our findings support the efficacy and safety of e-cigarettes in a short-term period. E-cigarettes use led to a higher cessation rate. Furthermore, although all participants reported a significant reduction of daily cigarette consumption compared to the baseline, the use of e-cigarettes (including those without nicotine) allowed smokers to achieve better results. Implications: E-cigarettes increased the stopping rate as well as the reduction of daily cigarettes in participants who continued smoking. In fact, although all participants reported a significant reduction of tobacco consumption compared to the baseline, the use of e-cigarettes allowed smokers to achieve a better result. It could be worthwhile to associate this device with new ICT-driven models of self-management support in order to enable people to better handle behavioral changes and side effects. This is true for ready-to-quit smokers (such as our participants) but can also be advantageous for less motivated smokers engaged in clinical settings.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)119-126
Number of pages8
JournalNicotine and Tobacco Research
Volume21
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jan 1 2019

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Tobacco Products
Randomized Controlled Trials
Smoking
Nicotine
Safety
Electronic Cigarettes
Placebos
Tobacco Use Cessation
Withholding Treatment
Tobacco Use
Smoking Cessation
United States Food and Drug Administration
Self Care
Early Detection of Cancer
Counseling
Lung Neoplasms
Outcome Assessment (Health Care)
Equipment and Supplies
Control Groups

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

Cite this

@article{b6a1216a6aad4b798e8fbd9589e52490,
title = "E-cigarettes may support smokers with high smoking-related risk awareness to stop smoking in the short run: Preliminary results by randomized controlled trial",
abstract = "Introduction: E-cigarettes may be positively used in tobacco cessation treatments. However, neither the World Health Organization nor the American Food and Drug Administration has recognized them as effective cessation aids. Data about the efficacy and safety of e-cigarettes are still limited and controversial. Methods: This was a double-blind randomized controlled study. The main focus of this article is on a secondary outcome of the study, that is, the assessment of effectiveness and safety of e-cigarettes in achieving smoking cessation in a group of chronic smokers voluntarily involved in long-term lung cancer screening. Participants were randomized into three arms with a 1:1:1 ratio: e-cigarettes (Arm 1), placebo (Arm 2), and control (Arm 3). All subjects also received a low-intensity counseling. Results: Two hundred ten smokers were randomized (70 to nicotine e-cigarettes, 70 nicotine-free placebo e-cigarettes, and 70 to control groups). About 25{\%} of participants who followed a cessation program based on the use of e-cigarettes (Arm 1 and Arm 2) were abstinent after 3 months. Conversely, only about 10{\%} of smokers in Arm 3 stopped. A Kruskal-Wallis test showed significant differences in daily cigarettes smoking across the three arms (K-W = 6.277, p = .043). In particular, participants in Arm 1 reported a higher reduction rate (M = -11.6441, SD = 7.574) than participants in Arm 2 (M = -10.7636, SD = 8.156) and Arm 3 (M = -9.1379, SD = 8.8127). Conclusions: Our findings support the efficacy and safety of e-cigarettes in a short-term period. E-cigarettes use led to a higher cessation rate. Furthermore, although all participants reported a significant reduction of daily cigarette consumption compared to the baseline, the use of e-cigarettes (including those without nicotine) allowed smokers to achieve better results. Implications: E-cigarettes increased the stopping rate as well as the reduction of daily cigarettes in participants who continued smoking. In fact, although all participants reported a significant reduction of tobacco consumption compared to the baseline, the use of e-cigarettes allowed smokers to achieve a better result. It could be worthwhile to associate this device with new ICT-driven models of self-management support in order to enable people to better handle behavioral changes and side effects. This is true for ready-to-quit smokers (such as our participants) but can also be advantageous for less motivated smokers engaged in clinical settings.",
author = "Marianna Masiero and Claudio Lucchiari and Ketti Mazzocco and Giulia Veronesi and Patrick Maisonneuve and Costantino Jemos and Sal{\`e}, {Emanuela Omodeo} and Stefania Spina and Raffaella Bertolotti and Gabriella Pravettoni",
year = "2019",
month = "1",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1093/ntr/nty047",
language = "English",
volume = "21",
pages = "119--126",
journal = "Nicotine and Tobacco Research",
issn = "1462-2203",
publisher = "Oxford University Press",
number = "1",

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TY - JOUR

T1 - E-cigarettes may support smokers with high smoking-related risk awareness to stop smoking in the short run

T2 - Preliminary results by randomized controlled trial

AU - Masiero, Marianna

AU - Lucchiari, Claudio

AU - Mazzocco, Ketti

AU - Veronesi, Giulia

AU - Maisonneuve, Patrick

AU - Jemos, Costantino

AU - Salè, Emanuela Omodeo

AU - Spina, Stefania

AU - Bertolotti, Raffaella

AU - Pravettoni, Gabriella

PY - 2019/1/1

Y1 - 2019/1/1

N2 - Introduction: E-cigarettes may be positively used in tobacco cessation treatments. However, neither the World Health Organization nor the American Food and Drug Administration has recognized them as effective cessation aids. Data about the efficacy and safety of e-cigarettes are still limited and controversial. Methods: This was a double-blind randomized controlled study. The main focus of this article is on a secondary outcome of the study, that is, the assessment of effectiveness and safety of e-cigarettes in achieving smoking cessation in a group of chronic smokers voluntarily involved in long-term lung cancer screening. Participants were randomized into three arms with a 1:1:1 ratio: e-cigarettes (Arm 1), placebo (Arm 2), and control (Arm 3). All subjects also received a low-intensity counseling. Results: Two hundred ten smokers were randomized (70 to nicotine e-cigarettes, 70 nicotine-free placebo e-cigarettes, and 70 to control groups). About 25% of participants who followed a cessation program based on the use of e-cigarettes (Arm 1 and Arm 2) were abstinent after 3 months. Conversely, only about 10% of smokers in Arm 3 stopped. A Kruskal-Wallis test showed significant differences in daily cigarettes smoking across the three arms (K-W = 6.277, p = .043). In particular, participants in Arm 1 reported a higher reduction rate (M = -11.6441, SD = 7.574) than participants in Arm 2 (M = -10.7636, SD = 8.156) and Arm 3 (M = -9.1379, SD = 8.8127). Conclusions: Our findings support the efficacy and safety of e-cigarettes in a short-term period. E-cigarettes use led to a higher cessation rate. Furthermore, although all participants reported a significant reduction of daily cigarette consumption compared to the baseline, the use of e-cigarettes (including those without nicotine) allowed smokers to achieve better results. Implications: E-cigarettes increased the stopping rate as well as the reduction of daily cigarettes in participants who continued smoking. In fact, although all participants reported a significant reduction of tobacco consumption compared to the baseline, the use of e-cigarettes allowed smokers to achieve a better result. It could be worthwhile to associate this device with new ICT-driven models of self-management support in order to enable people to better handle behavioral changes and side effects. This is true for ready-to-quit smokers (such as our participants) but can also be advantageous for less motivated smokers engaged in clinical settings.

AB - Introduction: E-cigarettes may be positively used in tobacco cessation treatments. However, neither the World Health Organization nor the American Food and Drug Administration has recognized them as effective cessation aids. Data about the efficacy and safety of e-cigarettes are still limited and controversial. Methods: This was a double-blind randomized controlled study. The main focus of this article is on a secondary outcome of the study, that is, the assessment of effectiveness and safety of e-cigarettes in achieving smoking cessation in a group of chronic smokers voluntarily involved in long-term lung cancer screening. Participants were randomized into three arms with a 1:1:1 ratio: e-cigarettes (Arm 1), placebo (Arm 2), and control (Arm 3). All subjects also received a low-intensity counseling. Results: Two hundred ten smokers were randomized (70 to nicotine e-cigarettes, 70 nicotine-free placebo e-cigarettes, and 70 to control groups). About 25% of participants who followed a cessation program based on the use of e-cigarettes (Arm 1 and Arm 2) were abstinent after 3 months. Conversely, only about 10% of smokers in Arm 3 stopped. A Kruskal-Wallis test showed significant differences in daily cigarettes smoking across the three arms (K-W = 6.277, p = .043). In particular, participants in Arm 1 reported a higher reduction rate (M = -11.6441, SD = 7.574) than participants in Arm 2 (M = -10.7636, SD = 8.156) and Arm 3 (M = -9.1379, SD = 8.8127). Conclusions: Our findings support the efficacy and safety of e-cigarettes in a short-term period. E-cigarettes use led to a higher cessation rate. Furthermore, although all participants reported a significant reduction of daily cigarette consumption compared to the baseline, the use of e-cigarettes (including those without nicotine) allowed smokers to achieve better results. Implications: E-cigarettes increased the stopping rate as well as the reduction of daily cigarettes in participants who continued smoking. In fact, although all participants reported a significant reduction of tobacco consumption compared to the baseline, the use of e-cigarettes allowed smokers to achieve a better result. It could be worthwhile to associate this device with new ICT-driven models of self-management support in order to enable people to better handle behavioral changes and side effects. This is true for ready-to-quit smokers (such as our participants) but can also be advantageous for less motivated smokers engaged in clinical settings.

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U2 - 10.1093/ntr/nty047

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JO - Nicotine and Tobacco Research

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