Early B-cell factors 2 and 3 (EBF2/3) regulate early migration of Cajal-Retzius cells from the cortical hem

Francesca Chiara, Aurora Badaloni, Laura Croci, Mason L. Yeh, Anna Cariboni, Anna Hoerder-Suabedissen, G. Giacomo Consalez, Britta Eickholt, Tomomi Shimogori, John G. Parnavelas, Sonja Rakić

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Cajal-Retzius (CR) cells play a crucial role in the formation of the cerebral cortex, yet the molecules that control their development are largely unknown. Here, we show that Ebf transcription factors are expressed in forebrain signalling centres-the septum, cortical hem and the pallial-subpallial boundary-known to generate CR cells. We identified Ebf2, through fate mapping studies, as a novel marker for cortical hem- and septum-derived CR cells. Loss of Ebf2 in vivo causes a transient decrease in CR cell numbers on the cortical surface due to a migratory defect in the cortical hem, and is accompanied by upregulation of Ebf3 in this and other forebrain territories that produce CR cells, without affecting proper cortical lamination. Accordingly, using in vitro preparations, we demonstrated that both Ebf2 and Ebf3, singly or together, control the migration of CR cells arising in the cortical hem. These findings provide evidence that Ebfs directly regulate CR cell development.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)277-289
Number of pages13
JournalDevelopmental Biology
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - May 1 2012


  • Corticogenesis
  • Migration
  • Reelin
  • Transcription factor

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Developmental Biology
  • Cell Biology
  • Molecular Biology


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