AIMS: To identify early clinical factors predictive of later morbidity in major depressive disorder (MDD).
METHODS: We analysed factors associated with long-term depressive morbidity (%-time ill) between a first-lifetime major depressive episode and last follow-up of 116 adults diagnosed with DSM-IV major depressive disorder. Bivariate comparisons were followed by multivariable linear regression modelling.
RESULTS: Three factors were independently associated with an average of 25%-time-depressed over 17 years at risk: (a) agitated-mixed, or psychotic features in initial major depressive episodes, (b) anxiety syndromes prior to a first-lifetime major depressive episode, and (c) anxiety symptoms in childhood.
CONCLUSION: Early anxiety symptoms and syndromes and agitated-mixed or psychotic initial depressive episodes predicted more long-term depressive morbidity in MDD.
- Age Factors
- Anxiety Disorders/diagnosis
- Correlation of Data
- Depressive Disorder, Major/diagnosis
- Follow-Up Studies
- Genetic Predisposition to Disease
- Logistic Models
- Middle Aged
- Psychotic Disorders/diagnosis
- Risk Factors