Early clinical predictors of long-term morbidity in major depressive disorder

Giulia Serra, Athanasios Koukopoulos, Lavinia De Chiara, Alexia E Koukopoulos, Gabriele Sani, Leonardo Tondo, Paolo Girardi, Daniela Reginaldi, Ross J Baldessarini

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


AIMS: To identify early clinical factors predictive of later morbidity in major depressive disorder (MDD).

METHODS: We analysed factors associated with long-term depressive morbidity (%-time ill) between a first-lifetime major depressive episode and last follow-up of 116 adults diagnosed with DSM-IV major depressive disorder. Bivariate comparisons were followed by multivariable linear regression modelling.

RESULTS: Three factors were independently associated with an average of 25%-time-depressed over 17 years at risk: (a) agitated-mixed, or psychotic features in initial major depressive episodes, (b) anxiety syndromes prior to a first-lifetime major depressive episode, and (c) anxiety symptoms in childhood.

CONCLUSION: Early anxiety symptoms and syndromes and agitated-mixed or psychotic initial depressive episodes predicted more long-term depressive morbidity in MDD.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)999-1002
Number of pages4
JournalEarly Intervention in Psychiatry
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2019


  • Adult
  • Age Factors
  • Aged
  • Anxiety Disorders/diagnosis
  • Child
  • Comorbidity
  • Correlation of Data
  • Depressive Disorder, Major/diagnosis
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Genetic Predisposition to Disease
  • Humans
  • Logistic Models
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Prognosis
  • Psychotic Disorders/diagnosis
  • Risk Factors


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