Early detection of colorectal adenocarcinoma: a clinical decision support tool based on plasma porphyrin accumulation and risk factors

Manuela Lualdi, Adalberto Cavalleri, Luigi Battaglia, Ambrogio Colombo, Giulia Garrone, Daniele Morelli, Emanuele Pignoli, Elisa Sottotetti, Ermanno Leo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

BACKGROUND: An increase in naturally-occurring porphyrins has been described in the blood of subjects bearing different kinds of tumors, including colorectal, and this is probably related to a systemic alteration of heme metabolism induced by tumor cells. The aim of our study was to develop an artificial neural network (ANN) classifier for early detection of colorectal adenocarcinoma based on plasma porphyrin accumulation and risk factors.

METHODS: We measured the endogenous fluorescence of blood plasma in 100 colorectal adenocarcinoma patients and 112 controls using a conventional spectrofluorometer. Height, weight, personal and family medical history, use of alcohol, red meat, vegetables and tobacco were all recorded. An ANN model was built up from demographic data and from the integral of the fluorescence emission peak in the range 610-650 nm. We used the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve to assess performance in distinguishing colorectal adenocarcinoma patients and controls. A liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) analytical method was employed to identify the agents responsible for native fluorescence.

RESULTS: The fluorescence analysis indicated that the integral of the fluorescence emission peak in the range 610-650 nm was significantly higher in colorectal adenocarcinoma patients than controls (p < 0.0001) and was weakly correlated with the TNM staging (Spearman's rho = 0.224, p = 0.011). LC-HRMS measurements showed that the agents responsible for the fluorescence emission were mainly protoporphyrin-IX (PpIX) and coproporphyrin-I (CpI). The overall accuracy of our ANN model was 88% (87% sensitivity and 90% specificity) with an area under the ROC curve of 0.83.

CONCLUSIONS: These results confirm that tumor cells accumulate a diagnostic level of endogenous porphyrin compounds and suggest that plasma porphyrin concentrations, indirectly measured through fluorescence analysis, may be useful, together with risk factors, as a clinical decision support tool for the early detection of colorectal adenocarcinoma. Our future efforts will be aimed at examining how plasma porphyrin accumulation correlates with survival and response to therapy.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)841
JournalBMC Cancer
Volume18
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Aug 22 2018

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Clinical Decision Support Systems
Porphyrins
Adenocarcinoma
Fluorescence
Neural Networks (Computer)
ROC Curve
Liquid Chromatography
Mass Spectrometry
Medical History Taking
Neoplasm Staging
Heme
Fluorescent Dyes
Vegetables
Tobacco
Colorectal Neoplasms
Neoplasms
Alcohols
Demography
Weights and Measures
Sensitivity and Specificity

Keywords

  • Adenocarcinoma/blood
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Colorectal Neoplasms/blood
  • Coproporphyrins/blood
  • Early Diagnosis
  • Female
  • Fluorescence
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Protoporphyrins/blood
  • Risk Factors

Cite this

Early detection of colorectal adenocarcinoma : a clinical decision support tool based on plasma porphyrin accumulation and risk factors. / Lualdi, Manuela; Cavalleri, Adalberto; Battaglia, Luigi; Colombo, Ambrogio; Garrone, Giulia; Morelli, Daniele; Pignoli, Emanuele; Sottotetti, Elisa; Leo, Ermanno.

In: BMC Cancer, Vol. 18, No. 1, 22.08.2018, p. 841.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "BACKGROUND: An increase in naturally-occurring porphyrins has been described in the blood of subjects bearing different kinds of tumors, including colorectal, and this is probably related to a systemic alteration of heme metabolism induced by tumor cells. The aim of our study was to develop an artificial neural network (ANN) classifier for early detection of colorectal adenocarcinoma based on plasma porphyrin accumulation and risk factors.METHODS: We measured the endogenous fluorescence of blood plasma in 100 colorectal adenocarcinoma patients and 112 controls using a conventional spectrofluorometer. Height, weight, personal and family medical history, use of alcohol, red meat, vegetables and tobacco were all recorded. An ANN model was built up from demographic data and from the integral of the fluorescence emission peak in the range 610-650 nm. We used the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve to assess performance in distinguishing colorectal adenocarcinoma patients and controls. A liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) analytical method was employed to identify the agents responsible for native fluorescence.RESULTS: The fluorescence analysis indicated that the integral of the fluorescence emission peak in the range 610-650 nm was significantly higher in colorectal adenocarcinoma patients than controls (p < 0.0001) and was weakly correlated with the TNM staging (Spearman's rho = 0.224, p = 0.011). LC-HRMS measurements showed that the agents responsible for the fluorescence emission were mainly protoporphyrin-IX (PpIX) and coproporphyrin-I (CpI). The overall accuracy of our ANN model was 88{\%} (87{\%} sensitivity and 90{\%} specificity) with an area under the ROC curve of 0.83.CONCLUSIONS: These results confirm that tumor cells accumulate a diagnostic level of endogenous porphyrin compounds and suggest that plasma porphyrin concentrations, indirectly measured through fluorescence analysis, may be useful, together with risk factors, as a clinical decision support tool for the early detection of colorectal adenocarcinoma. Our future efforts will be aimed at examining how plasma porphyrin accumulation correlates with survival and response to therapy.",
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T2 - a clinical decision support tool based on plasma porphyrin accumulation and risk factors

AU - Lualdi, Manuela

AU - Cavalleri, Adalberto

AU - Battaglia, Luigi

AU - Colombo, Ambrogio

AU - Garrone, Giulia

AU - Morelli, Daniele

AU - Pignoli, Emanuele

AU - Sottotetti, Elisa

AU - Leo, Ermanno

PY - 2018/8/22

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N2 - BACKGROUND: An increase in naturally-occurring porphyrins has been described in the blood of subjects bearing different kinds of tumors, including colorectal, and this is probably related to a systemic alteration of heme metabolism induced by tumor cells. The aim of our study was to develop an artificial neural network (ANN) classifier for early detection of colorectal adenocarcinoma based on plasma porphyrin accumulation and risk factors.METHODS: We measured the endogenous fluorescence of blood plasma in 100 colorectal adenocarcinoma patients and 112 controls using a conventional spectrofluorometer. Height, weight, personal and family medical history, use of alcohol, red meat, vegetables and tobacco were all recorded. An ANN model was built up from demographic data and from the integral of the fluorescence emission peak in the range 610-650 nm. We used the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve to assess performance in distinguishing colorectal adenocarcinoma patients and controls. A liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) analytical method was employed to identify the agents responsible for native fluorescence.RESULTS: The fluorescence analysis indicated that the integral of the fluorescence emission peak in the range 610-650 nm was significantly higher in colorectal adenocarcinoma patients than controls (p < 0.0001) and was weakly correlated with the TNM staging (Spearman's rho = 0.224, p = 0.011). LC-HRMS measurements showed that the agents responsible for the fluorescence emission were mainly protoporphyrin-IX (PpIX) and coproporphyrin-I (CpI). The overall accuracy of our ANN model was 88% (87% sensitivity and 90% specificity) with an area under the ROC curve of 0.83.CONCLUSIONS: These results confirm that tumor cells accumulate a diagnostic level of endogenous porphyrin compounds and suggest that plasma porphyrin concentrations, indirectly measured through fluorescence analysis, may be useful, together with risk factors, as a clinical decision support tool for the early detection of colorectal adenocarcinoma. Our future efforts will be aimed at examining how plasma porphyrin accumulation correlates with survival and response to therapy.

AB - BACKGROUND: An increase in naturally-occurring porphyrins has been described in the blood of subjects bearing different kinds of tumors, including colorectal, and this is probably related to a systemic alteration of heme metabolism induced by tumor cells. The aim of our study was to develop an artificial neural network (ANN) classifier for early detection of colorectal adenocarcinoma based on plasma porphyrin accumulation and risk factors.METHODS: We measured the endogenous fluorescence of blood plasma in 100 colorectal adenocarcinoma patients and 112 controls using a conventional spectrofluorometer. Height, weight, personal and family medical history, use of alcohol, red meat, vegetables and tobacco were all recorded. An ANN model was built up from demographic data and from the integral of the fluorescence emission peak in the range 610-650 nm. We used the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve to assess performance in distinguishing colorectal adenocarcinoma patients and controls. A liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) analytical method was employed to identify the agents responsible for native fluorescence.RESULTS: The fluorescence analysis indicated that the integral of the fluorescence emission peak in the range 610-650 nm was significantly higher in colorectal adenocarcinoma patients than controls (p < 0.0001) and was weakly correlated with the TNM staging (Spearman's rho = 0.224, p = 0.011). LC-HRMS measurements showed that the agents responsible for the fluorescence emission were mainly protoporphyrin-IX (PpIX) and coproporphyrin-I (CpI). The overall accuracy of our ANN model was 88% (87% sensitivity and 90% specificity) with an area under the ROC curve of 0.83.CONCLUSIONS: These results confirm that tumor cells accumulate a diagnostic level of endogenous porphyrin compounds and suggest that plasma porphyrin concentrations, indirectly measured through fluorescence analysis, may be useful, together with risk factors, as a clinical decision support tool for the early detection of colorectal adenocarcinoma. Our future efforts will be aimed at examining how plasma porphyrin accumulation correlates with survival and response to therapy.

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KW - Adult

KW - Aged

KW - Aged, 80 and over

KW - Colorectal Neoplasms/blood

KW - Coproporphyrins/blood

KW - Early Diagnosis

KW - Female

KW - Fluorescence

KW - Humans

KW - Male

KW - Middle Aged

KW - Protoporphyrins/blood

KW - Risk Factors

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