Early formative stage of human focal cortical gyration anomalies: Fetal MRI

Andrea Righini, Cecilia Parazzini, Chiara Doneda, Laura Avagliano, Filippo Arrigoni, Mariangela Rustico, Dario Consonni, Thomas Joseph Re, Gaetano Bulfamante, Fabio Triulzi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

27 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

OBJECTIVE. Limited information is available about the development of focal cortical gyration anomalies in the human brain. Using prenatal MRI, we characterized focal cortical gyration anomalies at an early formative stage and sought clues about the mechanisms of their development. MATERIALS AND METHODS. From a large prenatal MRI database, 30 cases (gestational age, ≤ 24 weeks) with reported focal distortion of the cortical rim profile were selected. Eight cases were matched with histologic examinations; another seven had prenatal MRI, MRI autopsy, or postnatal MRI follow-up; and 15 had no follow-up but did present analogous abnormal cortical features. Focal cortical gyration anomalies were detectable when the brain was still smooth (i.e., physiological lissencephaly). RESULTS. Four patterns of cortical plate anomaly were identified: wartlike (11 cases), abnormal invaginating sulcus (11 cases), sawtooth (six cases), and single or multiple bumps (two cases). A thinned or blurred subplate and intermediate zone in the focal cortical gyration anomaly site was detected in 80% of cases. All but two cases had other intracranial anomalies. Seven cases were classified as hypoxic-ischemic, five as genetic, and three as infective. In 15 cases, the cause could not be established. In five fetuses with further intrauterine or postnatal MRI, focal cortical gyration anomalies increased in complexity, fulfilling postnatal imaging criteria of polymicrogyria. CONCLUSION. Focal cortical gyration anomalies can be detected at the early sulcation process stage. The process leading to abnormal gyration may evolve faster than physiologic ones and seems to be related to alterations of parenchymal layering occurring before 24 weeks' gestation. Most focal cortical gyration anomalies evolve toward what is currently considered polymicrogyria.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)439-447
Number of pages9
JournalAmerican Journal of Roentgenology
Volume198
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2012

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Lissencephaly
Brain
Cerebral Cortex
Gestational Age
Autopsy
Fetus
Databases
Pregnancy
Polymicrogyria

Keywords

  • Brain cortex
  • Brain development
  • Cortical malformations
  • Fetal MRI
  • Polymicrogyria

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

Cite this

Early formative stage of human focal cortical gyration anomalies : Fetal MRI. / Righini, Andrea; Parazzini, Cecilia; Doneda, Chiara; Avagliano, Laura; Arrigoni, Filippo; Rustico, Mariangela; Consonni, Dario; Re, Thomas Joseph; Bulfamante, Gaetano; Triulzi, Fabio.

In: American Journal of Roentgenology, Vol. 198, No. 2, 02.2012, p. 439-447.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Righini, A, Parazzini, C, Doneda, C, Avagliano, L, Arrigoni, F, Rustico, M, Consonni, D, Re, TJ, Bulfamante, G & Triulzi, F 2012, 'Early formative stage of human focal cortical gyration anomalies: Fetal MRI', American Journal of Roentgenology, vol. 198, no. 2, pp. 439-447. https://doi.org/10.2214/AJR.11.6662
Righini, Andrea ; Parazzini, Cecilia ; Doneda, Chiara ; Avagliano, Laura ; Arrigoni, Filippo ; Rustico, Mariangela ; Consonni, Dario ; Re, Thomas Joseph ; Bulfamante, Gaetano ; Triulzi, Fabio. / Early formative stage of human focal cortical gyration anomalies : Fetal MRI. In: American Journal of Roentgenology. 2012 ; Vol. 198, No. 2. pp. 439-447.
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abstract = "OBJECTIVE. Limited information is available about the development of focal cortical gyration anomalies in the human brain. Using prenatal MRI, we characterized focal cortical gyration anomalies at an early formative stage and sought clues about the mechanisms of their development. MATERIALS AND METHODS. From a large prenatal MRI database, 30 cases (gestational age, ≤ 24 weeks) with reported focal distortion of the cortical rim profile were selected. Eight cases were matched with histologic examinations; another seven had prenatal MRI, MRI autopsy, or postnatal MRI follow-up; and 15 had no follow-up but did present analogous abnormal cortical features. Focal cortical gyration anomalies were detectable when the brain was still smooth (i.e., physiological lissencephaly). RESULTS. Four patterns of cortical plate anomaly were identified: wartlike (11 cases), abnormal invaginating sulcus (11 cases), sawtooth (six cases), and single or multiple bumps (two cases). A thinned or blurred subplate and intermediate zone in the focal cortical gyration anomaly site was detected in 80{\%} of cases. All but two cases had other intracranial anomalies. Seven cases were classified as hypoxic-ischemic, five as genetic, and three as infective. In 15 cases, the cause could not be established. In five fetuses with further intrauterine or postnatal MRI, focal cortical gyration anomalies increased in complexity, fulfilling postnatal imaging criteria of polymicrogyria. CONCLUSION. Focal cortical gyration anomalies can be detected at the early sulcation process stage. The process leading to abnormal gyration may evolve faster than physiologic ones and seems to be related to alterations of parenchymal layering occurring before 24 weeks' gestation. Most focal cortical gyration anomalies evolve toward what is currently considered polymicrogyria.",
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N2 - OBJECTIVE. Limited information is available about the development of focal cortical gyration anomalies in the human brain. Using prenatal MRI, we characterized focal cortical gyration anomalies at an early formative stage and sought clues about the mechanisms of their development. MATERIALS AND METHODS. From a large prenatal MRI database, 30 cases (gestational age, ≤ 24 weeks) with reported focal distortion of the cortical rim profile were selected. Eight cases were matched with histologic examinations; another seven had prenatal MRI, MRI autopsy, or postnatal MRI follow-up; and 15 had no follow-up but did present analogous abnormal cortical features. Focal cortical gyration anomalies were detectable when the brain was still smooth (i.e., physiological lissencephaly). RESULTS. Four patterns of cortical plate anomaly were identified: wartlike (11 cases), abnormal invaginating sulcus (11 cases), sawtooth (six cases), and single or multiple bumps (two cases). A thinned or blurred subplate and intermediate zone in the focal cortical gyration anomaly site was detected in 80% of cases. All but two cases had other intracranial anomalies. Seven cases were classified as hypoxic-ischemic, five as genetic, and three as infective. In 15 cases, the cause could not be established. In five fetuses with further intrauterine or postnatal MRI, focal cortical gyration anomalies increased in complexity, fulfilling postnatal imaging criteria of polymicrogyria. CONCLUSION. Focal cortical gyration anomalies can be detected at the early sulcation process stage. The process leading to abnormal gyration may evolve faster than physiologic ones and seems to be related to alterations of parenchymal layering occurring before 24 weeks' gestation. Most focal cortical gyration anomalies evolve toward what is currently considered polymicrogyria.

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