Early intervention in neurodevelopmental disorders: Underlying neural mechanisms

Giovanni Cioni, Emanuela Inguaggiato, Giuseppina Sgandurra

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

22 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Neurodevelopmental disorders affect motor, cognitive, language, learning, and behavioural development with lifelong consequences. Early identification of infants at risk for neurodevelopmental disorders is a major prerequisite for intervention programmes. This ensures that interventions which aim to positively modify the natural history of these disorders can start in the first weeks or months of life. As indicated by recent scientific evidence, gene abnormalities or congenital brain lesions are not the sole determinants for the neurodevelopmental outcome of affected infants. In fact, environment and experience may modify brain development and improve the outcome in infants at risk for neurodevelopmental disorders. In this review, we analyse the complexity and sensitivity of the brain to environmental stimuli, highlighting clinical effects of early intervention, mainly reported so far in preterm infants, and summarizing the effects of enriched environment on human and animal models. Finally, we discuss some new approaches to early intervention, based on recent neurophysiological theories and new breakthroughs in biotechnologies for diagnosis and rehabilitation. What this paper adds: Evidence is reported for the contribution of newer neurophysiological models and animal studies to EI programs ICT and biomechatronic tecniques can be of support for EI Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)61-66
Number of pages6
JournalDevelopmental Medicine and Child Neurology
Volume58
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Mar 1 2016

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Brain
Animal Models
Neurology
Biotechnology
Systems Analysis
Natural History
Premature Infants
Language
Rehabilitation
Medicine
Learning
Genes
Neurodevelopmental Disorders

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology
  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Developmental Neuroscience

Cite this

Early intervention in neurodevelopmental disorders : Underlying neural mechanisms. / Cioni, Giovanni; Inguaggiato, Emanuela; Sgandurra, Giuseppina.

In: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, Vol. 58, 01.03.2016, p. 61-66.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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