EAU-ESMO Consensus Statements on the Management of Advanced and Variant Bladder Cancer—An International Collaborative Multistakeholder Effort†[Formula presented]: Under the Auspices of the EAU-ESMO Guidelines Committees: European Urology

J.A. Witjes, M. Babjuk, J. Bellmunt, H. Maxim Bruins, T.M. De Reijke, M. De Santis, S. Gillessen, N. James, S. Maclennan, J. Palou, T. Powles, M.J. Ribal, S.F. Shariat, T. Van Der Kwast, E. Xylinas, N. Agarwal, T. Arends, A. Bamias, A. Birtle, P.C. BlackB.H. Bochner, M. Bolla, J.L. Boormans, A. Bossi, A. Briganti, I. Brummelhuis, M. Burger, D. Castellano, R. Cathomas, A. Chiti, A. Choudhury, E. Compérat, S. Crabb, S. Culine, B. De Bari, W. De Blok, P.J.L. De Visschere, K. Decaestecker, K. Dimitropoulos, J.L. Dominguez-Escrig, S. Fanti, V. Fonteyne, M. Frydenberg, J.J. Futterer, G. Gakis, B. Geavlete, P. Gontero, B. Grubmüller, S. Hafeez, D.E. Hansel, A. Hartmann, D. Hayne, A.M. Henry, V. Hernandez, H. Herr, K. Herrmann, P. Hoskin, J. Huguet, B.A. Jereczek-Fossa, R. Jones, A.M. Kamat, V. Khoo, A.E. Kiltie, S. Krege, S. Ladoire, P.C. Lara, A. Leliveld, E. Linares-Espinós, V. Løgager, A. Lorch, Y. Loriot, R. Meijer, M. Carmen Mir, M. Moschini, H. Mostafid, A.-C. Müller, C.R. Müller, J. N’dow, A. Necchi, Y. Neuzillet, J.R. Oddens, J. Oldenburg, S. Osanto, W.J.G. Oyen, L. Pacheco-Figueiredo, H. Pappot, M.I. Patel, B.R. Pieters, K. Plass, M. Remzi, M. Retz, J. Richenberg, M. Rink, F. Roghmann, J.E. Rosenberg, M. Rouprêt, O. Rouvière, C. Salembier, A. Salminen, P. Sargos, S. Sengupta, A. Sherif, R.J. Smeenk, A. Smits, A. Stenzl, G.N. Thalmann, B. Tombal, B. Turkbey, S.V. Lauridsen, R. Valdagni, A.G. Van Der Heijden, H. Van Poppel, M.D. Vartolomei, E. Veskimäe, A. Vilaseca, F.A. Vives Rivera, T. Wiegel, P. Wiklund, A. Williams, R. Zigeuner, A. Horwich

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: Although guidelines exist for advanced and variant bladder cancer management, evidence is limited/conflicting in some areas and the optimal approach remains controversial. Objective: To bring together a large multidisciplinary group of experts to develop consensus statements on controversial topics in bladder cancer management. Design: A steering committee compiled proposed statements regarding advanced and variant bladder cancer management which were assessed by 113 experts in a Delphi survey. Statements not reaching consensus were reviewed; those prioritised were revised by a panel of 45 experts prior to voting during a consensus conference. Setting: Online Delphi survey and consensus conference. Participants: The European Association of Urology (EAU), the European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO), experts in bladder cancer management. Outcome measurements and statistical analysis: Statements were ranked by experts according to their level of agreement: 1–3 (disagree), 4–6 (equivocal), and 7–9 (agree). A priori (level 1) consensus was defined as ≥70% agreement and ≤15% disagreement, or vice versa. In the Delphi survey, a second analysis was restricted to stakeholder group(s) considered to have adequate expertise relating to each statement (to achieve level 2 consensus). Results and limitations: Overall, 116 statements were included in the Delphi survey. Of these statements, 33 (28%) achieved level 1 consensus and 49 (42%) achieved level 1 or 2 consensus. At the consensus conference, 22 of 27 (81%) statements achieved consensus. These consensus statements provide further guidance across a broad range of topics, including the management of variant histologies, the role/limitations of prognostic biomarkers in clinical decision making, bladder preservation strategies, modern radiotherapy techniques, the management of oligometastatic disease, and the evolving role of checkpoint inhibitor therapy in metastatic disease. Conclusions: These consensus statements provide further guidance on controversial topics in advanced and variant bladder cancer management until a time when further evidence is available to guide our approach. Patient summary: This report summarises findings from an international, multistakeholder project organised by the EAU and ESMO. In this project, a steering committee identified areas of bladder cancer management where there is currently no good-quality evidence to guide treatment decisions. From this, they developed a series of proposed statements, 71 of which achieved consensus by a large group of experts in the field of bladder cancer. It is anticipated that these statements will provide further guidance to health care professionals and could help improve patient outcomes until a time when good-quality evidence is available. © 2019 European Society of Medical Oncology and European Association of Urology
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)223-250
Number of pages28
JournalEur. Urol.
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2020


  • Bladder cancer
  • Consensus
  • Delphi
  • Diagnosis
  • Follow-up
  • Treatment
  • checkpoint kinase inhibitor
  • tumor marker
  • advanced cancer
  • Article
  • bladder cancer
  • cancer prognosis
  • clinical decision making
  • clinical outcome
  • consensus
  • Delphi study
  • health care personnel
  • histology
  • human
  • metastasis
  • priority journal


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