Skin melanoma remains one of the most aggressive and difficult to treat human malignancy, with an increasing incidence every year. Although surgical resection represents the best therapeutic approach, this is only feasible in cases of early diagnosis. Furthermore, the established malignancy is resistant to all therapeutic strategies employed so far, resulting in an unacceptable patient survival rate. Although the immune-mediated therapeutic approaches, based on anti-PD1 or anti-CTLA4, are very promising and under clinical trial experimentation, they could conceal not yet fully emerged pitfalls such as the development of autoimmune diseases. Therefore, alternative therapeutic approaches are still under investigation, such as the immunogenic cell death (ICD) process. Here we show that the lack of calreticulin translocation onto mouse melanoma cell membrane prevents the stimulation of an effective ICD response in vivo.
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