PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Although differentiating neonatal-onset epilepsies from acute symptomatic neonatal seizures has been increasingly recognized as crucial, existing guidelines, and recommendations on EEG monitoring are mainly based on acute symptomatic seizures, especially secondary to hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. We aimed to narratively review current knowledge on neonatal-onset epilepsies of genetic, metabolic, and structural non-acquired origin, with special emphasis on EEG features and monitoring.
RECENT FINDINGS: A wide range of rare conditions are increasingly described, reducing undiagnosed cases. Although distinguishing features are identifiable in some, how to best monitor and detect less described etiologies is still an issue. A comprehensive approach considering onset, seizure evolution, ictal semiology, clinical, laboratory, EEG, and neuroimaging data is key to diagnosis. Phenotypic variability prevents precise recommendations, but a solid, consistent method moving from existing published guidelines helps in correctly assessing these newborns in order to provide better care, especially in view of expanding precision therapies.
- Epilepsy, Benign Neonatal/diagnosis
- Infant, Newborn
- Infant, Newborn, Diseases/diagnosis
- Monitoring, Physiologic/methods