EEMCO guidance for the efficacy assessment of antiperspirants and deodorants

Gérald E. Piérard, P. Elsner, R. Marks, P. Masson, M. Paye, E. Berardesca, L. Rodrigues, J. Gray, J. L. Lévêque, M. Loden, J. L. Parra

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Overproduction of sweat, sweaty skin and body odours are unpleasant for many social groups. Body cleansing products are designed to combat these undesirable features of skin. In addition, antiperspirant and deodorant products are more specifically used in the underarm site by a large part of the adult population. Antiperspirants are offered to control emotionally triggered sweating in the armpit. Deodorants are designed to combat malodour generated from bacteria-modified sweat. This review summarizes the physiology of eccrine, apocrine and apoeccrine sweat glands. The mechanisms of action of antiperspirants and deodorants are described as well as the factors influencing their efficacies. A series of tests using various measurement methods can be used to demonstrate the efficacy of antiperspirants. These include the gravimetric method, water evaporation quantification, electrodermal measurements, staining procedures, dye injections and cyanoacrylate skin surface strippings and casting replicas. Deodorant efficacy can be evaluated by sensory assessments performed by an expert panel. Indirect support is provided by visualization of apocrine gland excretion and collection of sweat and volatile compounds. Microbiological assessments and chromatographic analysis also provide indirect information.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)324-342
Number of pages19
JournalSkin Pharmacology and Applied Skin Physiology
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 2003

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology (medical)
  • Dermatology
  • Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutics(all)


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