Efavirenz-based antiretroviral therapy versus nevirapine-including regimens for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV option B plus in resource-limited settings: Is there anything missing?

Pasquale De Nardo, Elisa Gentilotti, Boniface Nguhuni, Francesco Vairo, Zainab Chaula, Emanuele Nicastri, Giuseppe Ippolito

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


In 2013, an estimated 1.5 million HIV-positive pregnant women gave birth, with 240,000 children worldwide acquiring HIV. More than 90% of new pediatric infections occurred in Sub-Saharan Africa. The latest WHO guidelines recommended efavirenz (EFV)-based antiretroviral therapy as the first-line regimen for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT). On the other hand, some data suggest that nevirapine (NVP), a well-known antiretroviral, could still play a relevant role in PMTCT, especially in resource-limited settings (RLSs) where the fertility rate is dramatically high compared to developed countries. Given the lack of an unanimous consensus and definitive opinions, this paper goes through the reasons for WHO decisions and aims at refreshing the debate about NVP and EFV pros and cons for PMTCT in RLSs.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)19-27
Number of pages9
JournalExpert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2 2016



  • Efavirenz
  • HIV
  • HIV-positive pregnant women
  • Nevirapine
  • Option B plus
  • Resource-limited settings
  • Sub-Saharan Africa

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Infectious Diseases
  • Microbiology (medical)
  • Microbiology
  • Virology

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