Cellular differentiation is thought to play an important role in the susceptibility of monocytic lineage cells to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection as well as in their ability to support virus replication. In addition, virus replication in monocytes/macrophages has been demonstrated in vitro to be strongly modulated by several cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor alpha and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the interaction between cellular differentiation and cytokines in the regulation of HIV expression from chronically infected monocytic lineage cells. U1, a persistently HIV-infected promonocytic cell line, is characterized by low levels of virus expression which can be modulated by several cytokines. 1α,-25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 (Vit.D3), a well-known differentiating agent for myelomonocytic cells which has been previously reported to modulate HIV replication in other in vitro systems, induced maturation of U1 cells toward a macrophage-like phenotype, as demonstrated by the induction of the differentiation-associated cell surface markers CD14 and CD11b. Vit.D3-induced differentiation did not result in induction of HIV expression; however, when U1 cells were stimulated with tumor necrosis factor alpha in the presence of Vit.D3, a synergistic induction of cell differentiation and viral expression was demonstrated. In contrast, Vit.D3 suppressed the induction of HIV expression in U1 cells stimulated with gamma interferon, interleukin-6, and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, although synergy between Vit.D3 and these cytokines was observed in terms of cellular differentiation. These data suggest that differentiation of monocytic cells does not necessarily correlate with increased HIV expression.
|Number of pages||7|
|Journal||Journal of Virology|
|Publication status||Published - Apr 1995|
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