Background The aetiology of Parkinson's disease (PD) is still very controversial, with a peculiar lack of established risk factors or protective behavior. Methods We carried out a case-control study of 634 idiopathic PD patients admitted from 2011 to 2015 to two hospitals located in central Italy and 532 controls matched by hospital, gender and age (± 5 years). The study questionnaire included questions on host factors, family history, residence, occupation and lifestyle. Odds ratios (ORs) for PD and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated with logistic regression, adjusting for actual and potential confounders. Results A lower OR was observed in females (0.74; 95%CI:0.58-0.96), while older age classes showed a constantly increased risk for PD (p<0.005) starting from the class 65-69 years. Subjects who reported a first degree relative affected by PD showed a borderline increase which was more evident in those enrolled in the urban center of Rome (OR = 1.65; 95%CI: 1.09-2.50). Significant reduction of the risk was associated to current smoking (OR = 0.48; 95%CI: 0.24-0.54), and to vegetables consumption (p<0.03), while borderline increases were associated to meat and cold cut consumption. Occupational activities classified according to ISCO-08 categories did not show increased risk, while higher ORs' were found for pilots and physicians. Conclusions The results from this study confirmed the higher risk of PD in males and in elderly, and the inverse association with smoking habit. The possible etiological role of familial clustering, dietary habit, and some job tasks is suggested.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
- Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)