Purpose: To analyze the changes in ganglion cell complex and peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness, in central macular thickness and choroidal thickness on spectral domain optical coherence tomography in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration treated with intravitreal ranibizumab injections. Methods: All consecutive patients with untreated neovascular age-related macular degeneration received loading phase of three monthly intravitreal ranibizumab, followed by retreatments on a pro re nata protocol for 12 months. Primary outcome: changes in ganglion cell complex and retinal nerve fiber layer at the end of follow-up. Secondary outcome: changes in best-corrected visual acuity, central macular thickness, and choroidal thickness at the end of follow-up. Choroidal thickness was measured at 500 m, 1000 m, and 1,500 m intervals nasally, temporally, superiorly, and inferiorly to the fovea, respectively, on horizontal and vertical line scans centered on the fovea. Results: Twenty-four eyes were included. Ganglion cell complex and peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness did not show statistically significant changes through 12 months (55.6 ± 18.5 and 81.9 ± 9.9 m at baseline, 52.7 ± 19.3 and 84.6 ± 15.5 m at month 12, P > 0.05). Central macular thickness showed progressive decrease from baseline to month 12, with maximum reduction at month 3 (P < 0.001). Statistically significant reduction in choroidal thickness was registered in the nasal 500, 1000, and 1,500 m from the fovea, corresponding to the papillomacular region (from 169.6 ± 45.3 to 153.9 ± 46.9, P < 0.001). Conclusion: Intravitreal ranibizumab injections did not affect retinal nerve fiber layer and ganglion cell complex thickness in 1-year follow-up. Choroidal thickness in papillomacular area and central macular thickness was significantly reduced at the end of treatment. Further studies, with larger sample, longer follow-up, and greater number of injections, are warranted.