Effect of Mediterranean diet enriched in high quality extra virgin olive oil on oxidative stress, inflammation and gut microbiota in obese and normal weight adult subjects

Maria Luisa Eliana Luisi, Laura Lucarini, Barbara Biffi, Elena Rafanelli, Giacomo Pietramellara, Mariaconcetta Durante, Sofia Vidali, Gustavo Provensi, Sara Madiai, Chiara Francesca Gheri, Emanuela Masini, Maria Teresa Ceccherini

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Introduction: The Mediterranean Diet (MD) is useful in the prevention of overweight, obesity and metabolic disease. High Quality-Extra Virgin Olive Oil (HQ-EVOO), an essential component of this diet, exerts protective effects against chronic diseases. Gut Microbiota (GM), recognized as a key factor in driving metabolic activities, is involved in the regulation of host immunity. Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) and their probio-active cellular substances produce beneficial effects in the gastrointestinal tract. Materials and Methods: Eighteen overweight/obese subjects (cases, BMI ≥25 kg/m2) and 18 normal weight controls (BMI 18.5-24.9 kg/m2) were fed with MD enriched with 40 g/die HQ-EVOO for three months. Feces and blood samples were collected at time 0 (T0) and after three months (T1) for LAB composition, oxidative stress, metabolic and inflammation parameter determinations. Results: Myeloperoxidase and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine, markers of inflammation and oxidative stress, were significantly decreased after MD rich in HQ-EVOO both in controls and in cases. Proinflammatory cytokines levels were significantly decreased in cases in comparison to controls, while IL-10 and adiponectin were significantly increased in cases. LAB's rpoB copies/ng of DNA increased 55.6 folds in cases compared to their baseline after MD rich in HQ-EVOO. MD rich in HQ-EVOO increased adiponectin and IL-10 concentration in overweight/obese subjects and decreased oxidative stress and inflammation parameters and at the same time, increased LAB number in GM. Discussion: Our results indicate that MD rich in HQ-EVOO induces an increase of LAB in GM and could have a potential role in the prevention of inflammation. Clinical Trial Registration: www.ClinicalTrials.gov, identifier NCT03441802.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1366
JournalFrontiers in Pharmacology
Volume10
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Nov 15 2019

Keywords

  • Adiponectin
  • Cytokines
  • High quality-extra virgin olive oil
  • Lactic acid bacteria
  • Mediterranean diet
  • Microbiota
  • Prevention
  • Rehabilitation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology
  • Pharmacology (medical)

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