The present study investigated the effect of nitric oxide (NO) on megakaryocyte (Mk) proliferation induced by thrombopoietin (TPO). Low-density mononuclear cells (MNCs) and CD34+ cells from human bone marrow (BM) were cultured in liquid medium in the presence of sodium nitroprusside (SNP) or (Z)-1-[2-(aminoethyl)-N-(2-ammonioethyl) amino] diazen-1-ium-1, 2-diolate (DETA/NO) and then stimulated with TPO. Mk number decreased in both NO donors, as identified by flow cytometry 11 to 13 days after TPO stimulation. Nitrite, cyanide, or the carrier molecule DETA failed to reproduce the inhibition caused by NO donors. When CD34+ cells were treated with DETA/NO, the inhibition of Mk growth was even more pronounced than that in MNCs. Failure of the guanosine 3′,5′-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP) analog 8-bromoguanosine 3′,5′-cyclic monophosphate (8-Br-cGMP) to inhibit Mk proliferation suggests that cGMP is not involved in Mk suppression mediated by NO. On the other hand, DNA analysis by flow cytometry showed that apoptosis of CD34+ cells and Mks seemed to be at least one of the mechanisms associated with the cytotoxic DETA/NO effect. Stimulation of MNCs or CD34+ cells with tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) increased endogenous NO levels and suppressed Mk growth. Treatment with NO synthesis inhibitors such as L-NG-monomethyl arginine (L-NMMA) or L-NG-nitroarginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME) partially reversed Mk growth inhibition induced by TNF-α and IFN-γ, although increased NO levels returned to normal values. The results presented here strongly indicate that NO regulates the growth of Mks induced by TPO by a direct effect on both progenitors and mature Mks.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pathology and Forensic Medicine