Effect of Sugar versus Mixed Breakfast on Metabolic and Neurofunctional Responses in Healthy Individuals

R. Codella, S. Benedini, S. Paini, A. Caumo, M. Adamo, I. Terruzzi, A. Ferrulli, C. MacRì, L. Andreoni, M. Sterlicchio, L. Luzi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

We investigated the effects of glucose and diverse breakfasts on glucose increment and ghrelin suppression and cognitive processing of sensory information assessed by frontal P300 evoked potentials. In a randomized crossover design, 12 healthy individuals (6M/6F; BMI 22.2 ± 0.4 kg/m2; 27 ± 1.3 years, mean ± SEM) underwent 50 g OGTT (A) and 3 breakfasts (B1: Milk and cereals; B2: Milk, apple, and chocolate cream-filled sponge cake; B3: Milk, apple, bread, and hazelnut chocolate cream) to assess plasma glucose-, insulin-, and ghrelin excursions. An electroencephalography was performed before and 100 min after consumption of each load to measure the latency of frontal P300 evoked potentials as index of cognitive performance. Breakfasts B1 and B2 exhibited significantly lower glycemic and insulinemic responses as compared to A. Breakfast B3 exhibited significantly lower glycemic, but not insulinemic response, as compared to A. Final plasma ghrelin inhibition was more pronounced, albeit not significantly, in all breakfasts with respect to A. P300 latency tended to decrease following each of the three breakfasts, but B3 was the only breakfast capable to elicit a statistically significant reduction in P300 latency with respect to A (p<0.01), suggesting ameliorated cognitive performance. Such amelioration was correlated with the 2-hour final inhibition of plasma ghrelin concentration (r=0.61, p=0.01). © 2017 Roberto Codella et al.
Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Diabetes Research
Volume2017
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2017

Fingerprint

Breakfast
Ghrelin
Milk
Malus
Evoked Potentials
Glucose
Corylus
Bread
Porifera
Glucose Tolerance Test
Automatic Data Processing
Cross-Over Studies
Electroencephalography
Insulin

Keywords

  • ghrelin
  • glucose
  • insulin
  • adult
  • apple
  • Article
  • body mass
  • brain function
  • bread
  • cereal
  • chocolate
  • cognition
  • controlled study
  • crossover procedure
  • electroencephalography
  • event related potential
  • evoked response
  • female
  • food intake
  • glucose blood level
  • hazelnut
  • human
  • insulin blood level
  • latent period
  • male
  • meal
  • milk
  • normal human
  • oral glucose tolerance test
  • pastry
  • randomized controlled trial
  • satiety

Cite this

Effect of Sugar versus Mixed Breakfast on Metabolic and Neurofunctional Responses in Healthy Individuals. / Codella, R.; Benedini, S.; Paini, S.; Caumo, A.; Adamo, M.; Terruzzi, I.; Ferrulli, A.; MacRì, C.; Andreoni, L.; Sterlicchio, M.; Luzi, L.

In: Journal of Diabetes Research, Vol. 2017, 2017.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Codella, R. ; Benedini, S. ; Paini, S. ; Caumo, A. ; Adamo, M. ; Terruzzi, I. ; Ferrulli, A. ; MacRì, C. ; Andreoni, L. ; Sterlicchio, M. ; Luzi, L. / Effect of Sugar versus Mixed Breakfast on Metabolic and Neurofunctional Responses in Healthy Individuals. In: Journal of Diabetes Research. 2017 ; Vol. 2017.
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title = "Effect of Sugar versus Mixed Breakfast on Metabolic and Neurofunctional Responses in Healthy Individuals",
abstract = "We investigated the effects of glucose and diverse breakfasts on glucose increment and ghrelin suppression and cognitive processing of sensory information assessed by frontal P300 evoked potentials. In a randomized crossover design, 12 healthy individuals (6M/6F; BMI 22.2 ± 0.4 kg/m2; 27 ± 1.3 years, mean ± SEM) underwent 50 g OGTT (A) and 3 breakfasts (B1: Milk and cereals; B2: Milk, apple, and chocolate cream-filled sponge cake; B3: Milk, apple, bread, and hazelnut chocolate cream) to assess plasma glucose-, insulin-, and ghrelin excursions. An electroencephalography was performed before and 100 min after consumption of each load to measure the latency of frontal P300 evoked potentials as index of cognitive performance. Breakfasts B1 and B2 exhibited significantly lower glycemic and insulinemic responses as compared to A. Breakfast B3 exhibited significantly lower glycemic, but not insulinemic response, as compared to A. Final plasma ghrelin inhibition was more pronounced, albeit not significantly, in all breakfasts with respect to A. P300 latency tended to decrease following each of the three breakfasts, but B3 was the only breakfast capable to elicit a statistically significant reduction in P300 latency with respect to A (p<0.01), suggesting ameliorated cognitive performance. Such amelioration was correlated with the 2-hour final inhibition of plasma ghrelin concentration (r=0.61, p=0.01). {\circledC} 2017 Roberto Codella et al.",
keywords = "ghrelin, glucose, insulin, adult, apple, Article, body mass, brain function, bread, cereal, chocolate, cognition, controlled study, crossover procedure, electroencephalography, event related potential, evoked response, female, food intake, glucose blood level, hazelnut, human, insulin blood level, latent period, male, meal, milk, normal human, oral glucose tolerance test, pastry, randomized controlled trial, satiety",
author = "R. Codella and S. Benedini and S. Paini and A. Caumo and M. Adamo and I. Terruzzi and A. Ferrulli and C. MacR{\`i} and L. Andreoni and M. Sterlicchio and L. Luzi",
note = "Export Date: 2 March 2018 Correspondence Address: Luzi, L.; Department of Biomedical Sciences for Health, Universit{\`a} degli Studi di MilanoItaly; email: livio.luzi@unimi.it Chemicals/CAS: ghrelin, 304853-26-7; glucose, 50-99-7, 84778-64-3; insulin, 9004-10-8 References: (2008) Overweight and Obesity-BMI Statistics, , http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statistics-explained/index.php/Overweightandobesity-BMIstatistics, European Commission, Eurostat-Statistics Explained; (2013) Diet Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases Report of the Joint WHO/FAO Expert Consultation, , WHO WHO; Obesity: Preventing and managing the global epidemic. Report of a WHO consultation (2000) World Health Organization Technical Report Series, 894, pp. 1-253. , WHO; Hall, K.D., Heymsfield, S.B., Kemnitz, J.W., Klein, S., Schoeller, D.A., Speakman, J.R., Energy balance and its components: Implications for body weight regulation (2012) The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 95 (4), pp. 989-994; Codella, R., Terruzzi, I., Luzi, L., Sugars, exercise and health (2016) Journal of Affective Disorders; Moreno, L.A., Rodr{\'i}guez, G., Dietary risk factors for development of childhood obesity (2007) Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care, 10 (3), pp. 336-341; Rodr{\'i}guez, G., Moreno, L.A., Is dietary intake able to explain differences in body fatness in children and adolescents (2006) Nutrition, Metabolism, Cardiovascular Diseases, 16 (4), pp. 294-301; Carson, T.A., Siega-Riz, A.M., Popkin, B.M., The importance of breakfast meal type to daily nutrient intake (1999) Cereal Foods World, 44 (6), pp. 414-422; Timlin, M.T., Pereira, M.A., Breakfast frequency and quality in the etiology of adult obesity and chronic diseases (2007) Nutrition Reviews, 65 (6), pp. 268-281; Toschke, A.M., K{\"u}chenhoff, H., Koletzko, B., Von Kries, R., Meal frequency and childhood obesity (2005) Obesity Research, 13 (11), pp. 1932-1938; Jakubowicz, D., Barnea, M., Wainstein, J., Froy, O., High caloric intake at breakfast vs. Dinner differentially influences weight loss of overweight and obese women (2013) Obesity, 21 (12), pp. 2504-2512; McCrory, M.A., Campbell, W.W., Effects of eating frequency, snacking, breakfast skipping on energy regulation: Symposium overview (2011) The Journal of Nutrition, 141 (1), pp. 144-147; Berkey, C.S., Rockett, H.R.H., Gillman, M.W., Field, A.E., Colditz, G.A., Longitudinal study of skipping breakfast and weight change in adolescents (2003) International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders, 27 (10), pp. 1258-1266; Siega-Riz, A.M., Popkin, B.M., Carson, T., Trends in breakfast consumption for children in the United States from 1965-1991 (1998) The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 67 (4), pp. 748S-756S; Bellisle, F., Rolland-Cachera, M.-F., Committee, K.S.A., Three consecutive (1993, 1995, 1997) surveys of food intake, nutritional attitudes and knowledge, lifestyle in 1000 French children, aged 9-11 years (2007) Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics, 20 (3), pp. 241-251; Beel{\`u}, R., Riva, E., Ortisi, M.T., Preliminary results of a nutritional survey in a sample of 35, 000 Italian schoolchildren (1996) The Journal of International Medical Research, 24 (2), pp. 169-184; (2016) WHO, Healthy Diet, , http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs394/en/, European Commission WHO, Geneva 2016, August; Williams, P.G., The benefits of breakfast cereal consumption: A systematic review of the evidence base (2014) Advances in Nutrition: An International Review Journal, 5 (5), pp. 636S-673S; Adolphus, K., Lawton, C.L., Dye, L., The effects of breakfast on behavior and academic performance in children and adolescents (2013) Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 7, p. 425. , eCollection 2013; Ma, Y., Bertone, E.R., Stanek, E.J., III, Association between eating patterns and obesity in a free-living US adult population (2003) American Journal of Epidemiology, 158 (1), pp. 85-92; Horikawa, C., Kodama, S., Yachi, Y., Skipping breakfast and prevalence of overweight and obesity in Asian and Pacific regions: A meta-analysis (2011) Preventive Medicine (Baltim), 53 (4-5), pp. 260-267; Szajewska, H., Ruszczyski, M., Systematic review demonstrating that breakfast consumption influences body weight outcomes in children and adolescents in Europe (2010) Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 50 (2), pp. 113-119; (2015) European Food and Nutrition Action Plan 2015-2020; Wijnhoven, T., Van Raaij, J., Sj{\"o}berg, A., WHO European childhood obesity surveillance initiative: School nutrition environment and body mass index in primary schools (2014) International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 11 (11), pp. 11261-11285; Utter, J., Scragg, R., Mhurchu, C.N., Schaaf, D., At-home breakfast consumption among New Zealand children: Associations with body mass index and related nutrition behaviors a figure is presented (2007) Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 107 (4), pp. 570-576; Keski-Rahkonen, A., Kaprio, J., Rissanen, A., Virkkunen, M., Rose, R.J., Breakfast skipping and health-compromising behaviors in adolescents and adults (2003) European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 57 (7), pp. 842-853; Affenito, S.G., Thompson, D.R., Barton, B.A., Breakfast consumption by African-American and white adolescent girls correlates positively with calcium and fiber intake and negatively with body mass index (2005) Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 105 (6), pp. 938-945; Nicklas, T.A., Reger, C., Myers, L., O'Neil, C., Breakfast consumption with and without vitamin-mineral supplement use favorably impacts daily nutrient intake of ninth-grade students (2000) The Journal of Adolescent Health, 27 (5), pp. 314-321; Pollitt, E., Mathews, R., Breakfast and cognition: An integrative summary (1998) The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 67 (4), pp. 804S-813S; Vaisman, N., Voet, H., Akivis, A., Vakil, E., Effect of breakfast timing on the cognitive functions of elementary school students (1996) Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 150 (10), pp. 1089-1092; Murphy, J.M., Pagano, M.E., Nachmani, J., Sperling, P., Kane, S., Kleinman, R.E., The relationship of school breakfast to psychosocial and academic functioning: Cross-sectional and longitudinal observations in an inner-city school sample (1998) Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 152 (9), pp. 899-907; Young, H., Benton, D., The glycemic load of meals, cognition and mood in middle and older aged adults with differences in glucose tolerance: A randomized trial (2014) E-SPEN Journal, 9 (4), pp. e147-e154; Roberts, S.B., High-glycemic index foods, hunger, obesity: Is there a connection (2000) Nutrition Reviews, 58 (6), pp. 163-169; Ingwersen, J., Defeyter, M.A., Kennedy, D.O., Wesnes, K.A., Scholey, A.B., A low glycaemic index breakfast cereal preferentially prevents children's cognitive performance from declining throughout the morning (2007) Appetite, 49 (1), pp. 240-244; Benedini, S., Codella, R., Caumo, A., Marangoni, F., Luzi, L., Different circulating ghrelin responses to isoglucidic snack food in healthy individuals (2011) Hormone and Metabolic Research, 43 (2), pp. 135-140; Cummings, D.E., Purnell, J.Q., Frayo, R.S., Schmidova, K., Wisse, B.E., Weigle, D.S., A preprandial rise in plasma ghrelin levels suggests a role in meal initiation in humans (2001) Diabetes, 50 (8), pp. 1714-1719; Tsch{\"o}p, M., Wawarta, R., Riepl, R.L., Post-prandial decrease of circulating human ghrelin levels (2001) Journal of Endocrinological Investigation, 24 (6), pp. RC19-RC21; Horvath, T.L., Diano, S., Sotonyi, P., Heiman, M., Tscho, P.M., Minireview: Ghrelin and the regulation of energy balance-A hypothalamic perspective (2016) Endocrinology, 142 (10), pp. 4163-4169; Benton, D., Brock, H., Mood and the macro-nutrient composition of breakfast and the mid-day meal (2010) Appetite, 55 (3), pp. 436-440; Hoyland, A., Lawton, C., Dye, L., Influence of breakfast on cognitive performance, appetite and mood in healthy young adults (2008) Appetite, 50 (2); Bellisle, F., Effects of diet on behaviour and cognition in children (2004) The British Journal of Nutrition, 92, pp. S227-S232; Fischer, K., Colombani, P.C., Wenk, C., Metabolic and cognitive coefficients in the development of hunger sensations after pure macronutrient ingestion in the morning (2004) Appetite, 42 (1), pp. 49-61; Buckland, N.J., Dalton, M., Stubbs, R.J., Hetherington, M.M., Blundell, J.E., Finlayson, G., Exploring the relationship between cognitive, sensory and nutritional food attributes and consumer understanding of their potential for satiety (2015) Appetite, 91, p. 434; Hoffman, L.D., Polich, J., EEG, ERPs and food consumption (1998) Biological Psychology, 48 (2), pp. 139-151; Kaplan, R.J., Greenwood, C.E., Winocur, G., Wolever, T.M., Cognitive performance is associated with glucose regulation in healthy elderly persons and can be enhanced with glucose and dietary carbohydrates (2000) The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 72 (3), pp. 825-836; Nijs, I.M.T., Muris, P., Euser, A.S., Franken, I.H.A., Differences in attention to food and food intake between overweight/obese and normal-weight females under conditions of hunger and satiety (2010) Appetite, 54 (2), pp. 243-254; (2003) Ministry of Agricultural, Food and Forestry Policies (MiPAAF)-Italy, , Rome; Maurits, N.M., Elting, J.W., Jager, D.K.R.B., Hoeven Der Van, J.H., Brouwer, W.H., P300componentidentification in auditory odd ball and novel paradigms using source analysis techniques: Reduced latency variability in the elderly (2005) Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology, 22 (3), pp. 166-175; Friedman, D., Cycowicz, Y.M., Gaeta, H., The novelty P3: An event-related brain potential (ERP) sign of the brain's evaluation of novelty (2001) Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 25 (4), pp. 355-373; Cahill, L., Chiuve, S., Mekary, R., Jensen, M., Flint, A., Prospective study of breakfast eating and incident coronary heart disease in a cohort of male US health professionals (2013) Circulation, 128 (4), pp. 337-343; Mekary, R.A., Giovannucci, E., Willett, W.C., Van Dam, R.M., Hu, F.B., Eating patterns and type 2 diabetes risk in men: Breakfast omission, eating frequency, snacking (2012) The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 95 (5), pp. 1182-1189; Mekary, R.A., Giovannucci, E., Cahill, L., Willett, W.C., Van Dam, R.M., Hu, F.B., Eating patterns and type 2 diabetes risk in older women: Breakfast consumption and eating frequency (2013) The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 98 (2), pp. 436-443; Goldstone, A.P., Prechtl, C.G., Scholtz, S., Ghrelin mimics fasting to enhance human hedonic, orbitofrontal cortex, hippocampal responses to food (2014) The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 99 (6), pp. 1319-1330; Polich, J., Frequency, intensity, duration as determinants of P300 from auditory stimuli (1989) Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology, 6 (3), pp. 277-286; Dien, J., Spencer, K.M., Donchin, E., Parsing the late positive complex: Mental chronometry and the ERP components that inhabit the neighborhood of the P300 (2004) Psychophysiology, 41 (5), pp. 665-678; Pearson, N., Biddle, S.J.H., Gorely, T., Family correlates of breakfast consumption among children and adolescents. A systematic review (2009) Appetite, 52 (1), pp. 1-7",
year = "2017",
doi = "10.1155/2017/9634585",
language = "English",
volume = "2017",
journal = "Journal of Diabetes Research",
issn = "2314-6745",
publisher = "Hindawi Limited",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Effect of Sugar versus Mixed Breakfast on Metabolic and Neurofunctional Responses in Healthy Individuals

AU - Codella, R.

AU - Benedini, S.

AU - Paini, S.

AU - Caumo, A.

AU - Adamo, M.

AU - Terruzzi, I.

AU - Ferrulli, A.

AU - MacRì, C.

AU - Andreoni, L.

AU - Sterlicchio, M.

AU - Luzi, L.

N1 - Export Date: 2 March 2018 Correspondence Address: Luzi, L.; Department of Biomedical Sciences for Health, Università degli Studi di MilanoItaly; email: livio.luzi@unimi.it Chemicals/CAS: ghrelin, 304853-26-7; glucose, 50-99-7, 84778-64-3; insulin, 9004-10-8 References: (2008) Overweight and Obesity-BMI Statistics, , http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statistics-explained/index.php/Overweightandobesity-BMIstatistics, European Commission, Eurostat-Statistics Explained; (2013) Diet Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases Report of the Joint WHO/FAO Expert Consultation, , WHO WHO; Obesity: Preventing and managing the global epidemic. Report of a WHO consultation (2000) World Health Organization Technical Report Series, 894, pp. 1-253. , WHO; Hall, K.D., Heymsfield, S.B., Kemnitz, J.W., Klein, S., Schoeller, D.A., Speakman, J.R., Energy balance and its components: Implications for body weight regulation (2012) The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 95 (4), pp. 989-994; Codella, R., Terruzzi, I., Luzi, L., Sugars, exercise and health (2016) Journal of Affective Disorders; Moreno, L.A., Rodríguez, G., Dietary risk factors for development of childhood obesity (2007) Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care, 10 (3), pp. 336-341; Rodríguez, G., Moreno, L.A., Is dietary intake able to explain differences in body fatness in children and adolescents (2006) Nutrition, Metabolism, Cardiovascular Diseases, 16 (4), pp. 294-301; Carson, T.A., Siega-Riz, A.M., Popkin, B.M., The importance of breakfast meal type to daily nutrient intake (1999) Cereal Foods World, 44 (6), pp. 414-422; Timlin, M.T., Pereira, M.A., Breakfast frequency and quality in the etiology of adult obesity and chronic diseases (2007) Nutrition Reviews, 65 (6), pp. 268-281; Toschke, A.M., Küchenhoff, H., Koletzko, B., Von Kries, R., Meal frequency and childhood obesity (2005) Obesity Research, 13 (11), pp. 1932-1938; Jakubowicz, D., Barnea, M., Wainstein, J., Froy, O., High caloric intake at breakfast vs. Dinner differentially influences weight loss of overweight and obese women (2013) Obesity, 21 (12), pp. 2504-2512; McCrory, M.A., Campbell, W.W., Effects of eating frequency, snacking, breakfast skipping on energy regulation: Symposium overview (2011) The Journal of Nutrition, 141 (1), pp. 144-147; Berkey, C.S., Rockett, H.R.H., Gillman, M.W., Field, A.E., Colditz, G.A., Longitudinal study of skipping breakfast and weight change in adolescents (2003) International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders, 27 (10), pp. 1258-1266; Siega-Riz, A.M., Popkin, B.M., Carson, T., Trends in breakfast consumption for children in the United States from 1965-1991 (1998) The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 67 (4), pp. 748S-756S; Bellisle, F., Rolland-Cachera, M.-F., Committee, K.S.A., Three consecutive (1993, 1995, 1997) surveys of food intake, nutritional attitudes and knowledge, lifestyle in 1000 French children, aged 9-11 years (2007) Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics, 20 (3), pp. 241-251; Beelù, R., Riva, E., Ortisi, M.T., Preliminary results of a nutritional survey in a sample of 35, 000 Italian schoolchildren (1996) The Journal of International Medical Research, 24 (2), pp. 169-184; (2016) WHO, Healthy Diet, , http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs394/en/, European Commission WHO, Geneva 2016, August; Williams, P.G., The benefits of breakfast cereal consumption: A systematic review of the evidence base (2014) Advances in Nutrition: An International Review Journal, 5 (5), pp. 636S-673S; Adolphus, K., Lawton, C.L., Dye, L., The effects of breakfast on behavior and academic performance in children and adolescents (2013) Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 7, p. 425. , eCollection 2013; Ma, Y., Bertone, E.R., Stanek, E.J., III, Association between eating patterns and obesity in a free-living US adult population (2003) American Journal of Epidemiology, 158 (1), pp. 85-92; Horikawa, C., Kodama, S., Yachi, Y., Skipping breakfast and prevalence of overweight and obesity in Asian and Pacific regions: A meta-analysis (2011) Preventive Medicine (Baltim), 53 (4-5), pp. 260-267; Szajewska, H., Ruszczyski, M., Systematic review demonstrating that breakfast consumption influences body weight outcomes in children and adolescents in Europe (2010) Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 50 (2), pp. 113-119; (2015) European Food and Nutrition Action Plan 2015-2020; Wijnhoven, T., Van Raaij, J., Sjöberg, A., WHO European childhood obesity surveillance initiative: School nutrition environment and body mass index in primary schools (2014) International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 11 (11), pp. 11261-11285; Utter, J., Scragg, R., Mhurchu, C.N., Schaaf, D., At-home breakfast consumption among New Zealand children: Associations with body mass index and related nutrition behaviors a figure is presented (2007) Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 107 (4), pp. 570-576; Keski-Rahkonen, A., Kaprio, J., Rissanen, A., Virkkunen, M., Rose, R.J., Breakfast skipping and health-compromising behaviors in adolescents and adults (2003) European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 57 (7), pp. 842-853; Affenito, S.G., Thompson, D.R., Barton, B.A., Breakfast consumption by African-American and white adolescent girls correlates positively with calcium and fiber intake and negatively with body mass index (2005) Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 105 (6), pp. 938-945; Nicklas, T.A., Reger, C., Myers, L., O'Neil, C., Breakfast consumption with and without vitamin-mineral supplement use favorably impacts daily nutrient intake of ninth-grade students (2000) The Journal of Adolescent Health, 27 (5), pp. 314-321; Pollitt, E., Mathews, R., Breakfast and cognition: An integrative summary (1998) The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 67 (4), pp. 804S-813S; Vaisman, N., Voet, H., Akivis, A., Vakil, E., Effect of breakfast timing on the cognitive functions of elementary school students (1996) Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 150 (10), pp. 1089-1092; Murphy, J.M., Pagano, M.E., Nachmani, J., Sperling, P., Kane, S., Kleinman, R.E., The relationship of school breakfast to psychosocial and academic functioning: Cross-sectional and longitudinal observations in an inner-city school sample (1998) Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 152 (9), pp. 899-907; Young, H., Benton, D., The glycemic load of meals, cognition and mood in middle and older aged adults with differences in glucose tolerance: A randomized trial (2014) E-SPEN Journal, 9 (4), pp. e147-e154; Roberts, S.B., High-glycemic index foods, hunger, obesity: Is there a connection (2000) Nutrition Reviews, 58 (6), pp. 163-169; Ingwersen, J., Defeyter, M.A., Kennedy, D.O., Wesnes, K.A., Scholey, A.B., A low glycaemic index breakfast cereal preferentially prevents children's cognitive performance from declining throughout the morning (2007) Appetite, 49 (1), pp. 240-244; Benedini, S., Codella, R., Caumo, A., Marangoni, F., Luzi, L., Different circulating ghrelin responses to isoglucidic snack food in healthy individuals (2011) Hormone and Metabolic Research, 43 (2), pp. 135-140; Cummings, D.E., Purnell, J.Q., Frayo, R.S., Schmidova, K., Wisse, B.E., Weigle, D.S., A preprandial rise in plasma ghrelin levels suggests a role in meal initiation in humans (2001) Diabetes, 50 (8), pp. 1714-1719; Tschöp, M., Wawarta, R., Riepl, R.L., Post-prandial decrease of circulating human ghrelin levels (2001) Journal of Endocrinological Investigation, 24 (6), pp. RC19-RC21; Horvath, T.L., Diano, S., Sotonyi, P., Heiman, M., Tscho, P.M., Minireview: Ghrelin and the regulation of energy balance-A hypothalamic perspective (2016) Endocrinology, 142 (10), pp. 4163-4169; Benton, D., Brock, H., Mood and the macro-nutrient composition of breakfast and the mid-day meal (2010) Appetite, 55 (3), pp. 436-440; Hoyland, A., Lawton, C., Dye, L., Influence of breakfast on cognitive performance, appetite and mood in healthy young adults (2008) Appetite, 50 (2); Bellisle, F., Effects of diet on behaviour and cognition in children (2004) The British Journal of Nutrition, 92, pp. S227-S232; Fischer, K., Colombani, P.C., Wenk, C., Metabolic and cognitive coefficients in the development of hunger sensations after pure macronutrient ingestion in the morning (2004) Appetite, 42 (1), pp. 49-61; Buckland, N.J., Dalton, M., Stubbs, R.J., Hetherington, M.M., Blundell, J.E., Finlayson, G., Exploring the relationship between cognitive, sensory and nutritional food attributes and consumer understanding of their potential for satiety (2015) Appetite, 91, p. 434; Hoffman, L.D., Polich, J., EEG, ERPs and food consumption (1998) Biological Psychology, 48 (2), pp. 139-151; Kaplan, R.J., Greenwood, C.E., Winocur, G., Wolever, T.M., Cognitive performance is associated with glucose regulation in healthy elderly persons and can be enhanced with glucose and dietary carbohydrates (2000) The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 72 (3), pp. 825-836; Nijs, I.M.T., Muris, P., Euser, A.S., Franken, I.H.A., Differences in attention to food and food intake between overweight/obese and normal-weight females under conditions of hunger and satiety (2010) Appetite, 54 (2), pp. 243-254; (2003) Ministry of Agricultural, Food and Forestry Policies (MiPAAF)-Italy, , Rome; Maurits, N.M., Elting, J.W., Jager, D.K.R.B., Hoeven Der Van, J.H., Brouwer, W.H., P300componentidentification in auditory odd ball and novel paradigms using source analysis techniques: Reduced latency variability in the elderly (2005) Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology, 22 (3), pp. 166-175; Friedman, D., Cycowicz, Y.M., Gaeta, H., The novelty P3: An event-related brain potential (ERP) sign of the brain's evaluation of novelty (2001) Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 25 (4), pp. 355-373; Cahill, L., Chiuve, S., Mekary, R., Jensen, M., Flint, A., Prospective study of breakfast eating and incident coronary heart disease in a cohort of male US health professionals (2013) Circulation, 128 (4), pp. 337-343; Mekary, R.A., Giovannucci, E., Willett, W.C., Van Dam, R.M., Hu, F.B., Eating patterns and type 2 diabetes risk in men: Breakfast omission, eating frequency, snacking (2012) The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 95 (5), pp. 1182-1189; Mekary, R.A., Giovannucci, E., Cahill, L., Willett, W.C., Van Dam, R.M., Hu, F.B., Eating patterns and type 2 diabetes risk in older women: Breakfast consumption and eating frequency (2013) The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 98 (2), pp. 436-443; Goldstone, A.P., Prechtl, C.G., Scholtz, S., Ghrelin mimics fasting to enhance human hedonic, orbitofrontal cortex, hippocampal responses to food (2014) The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 99 (6), pp. 1319-1330; Polich, J., Frequency, intensity, duration as determinants of P300 from auditory stimuli (1989) Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology, 6 (3), pp. 277-286; Dien, J., Spencer, K.M., Donchin, E., Parsing the late positive complex: Mental chronometry and the ERP components that inhabit the neighborhood of the P300 (2004) Psychophysiology, 41 (5), pp. 665-678; Pearson, N., Biddle, S.J.H., Gorely, T., Family correlates of breakfast consumption among children and adolescents. A systematic review (2009) Appetite, 52 (1), pp. 1-7

PY - 2017

Y1 - 2017

N2 - We investigated the effects of glucose and diverse breakfasts on glucose increment and ghrelin suppression and cognitive processing of sensory information assessed by frontal P300 evoked potentials. In a randomized crossover design, 12 healthy individuals (6M/6F; BMI 22.2 ± 0.4 kg/m2; 27 ± 1.3 years, mean ± SEM) underwent 50 g OGTT (A) and 3 breakfasts (B1: Milk and cereals; B2: Milk, apple, and chocolate cream-filled sponge cake; B3: Milk, apple, bread, and hazelnut chocolate cream) to assess plasma glucose-, insulin-, and ghrelin excursions. An electroencephalography was performed before and 100 min after consumption of each load to measure the latency of frontal P300 evoked potentials as index of cognitive performance. Breakfasts B1 and B2 exhibited significantly lower glycemic and insulinemic responses as compared to A. Breakfast B3 exhibited significantly lower glycemic, but not insulinemic response, as compared to A. Final plasma ghrelin inhibition was more pronounced, albeit not significantly, in all breakfasts with respect to A. P300 latency tended to decrease following each of the three breakfasts, but B3 was the only breakfast capable to elicit a statistically significant reduction in P300 latency with respect to A (p<0.01), suggesting ameliorated cognitive performance. Such amelioration was correlated with the 2-hour final inhibition of plasma ghrelin concentration (r=0.61, p=0.01). © 2017 Roberto Codella et al.

AB - We investigated the effects of glucose and diverse breakfasts on glucose increment and ghrelin suppression and cognitive processing of sensory information assessed by frontal P300 evoked potentials. In a randomized crossover design, 12 healthy individuals (6M/6F; BMI 22.2 ± 0.4 kg/m2; 27 ± 1.3 years, mean ± SEM) underwent 50 g OGTT (A) and 3 breakfasts (B1: Milk and cereals; B2: Milk, apple, and chocolate cream-filled sponge cake; B3: Milk, apple, bread, and hazelnut chocolate cream) to assess plasma glucose-, insulin-, and ghrelin excursions. An electroencephalography was performed before and 100 min after consumption of each load to measure the latency of frontal P300 evoked potentials as index of cognitive performance. Breakfasts B1 and B2 exhibited significantly lower glycemic and insulinemic responses as compared to A. Breakfast B3 exhibited significantly lower glycemic, but not insulinemic response, as compared to A. Final plasma ghrelin inhibition was more pronounced, albeit not significantly, in all breakfasts with respect to A. P300 latency tended to decrease following each of the three breakfasts, but B3 was the only breakfast capable to elicit a statistically significant reduction in P300 latency with respect to A (p<0.01), suggesting ameliorated cognitive performance. Such amelioration was correlated with the 2-hour final inhibition of plasma ghrelin concentration (r=0.61, p=0.01). © 2017 Roberto Codella et al.

KW - ghrelin

KW - glucose

KW - insulin

KW - adult

KW - apple

KW - Article

KW - body mass

KW - brain function

KW - bread

KW - cereal

KW - chocolate

KW - cognition

KW - controlled study

KW - crossover procedure

KW - electroencephalography

KW - event related potential

KW - evoked response

KW - female

KW - food intake

KW - glucose blood level

KW - hazelnut

KW - human

KW - insulin blood level

KW - latent period

KW - male

KW - meal

KW - milk

KW - normal human

KW - oral glucose tolerance test

KW - pastry

KW - randomized controlled trial

KW - satiety

U2 - 10.1155/2017/9634585

DO - 10.1155/2017/9634585

M3 - Article

VL - 2017

JO - Journal of Diabetes Research

JF - Journal of Diabetes Research

SN - 2314-6745

ER -