Effect of Sugar versus Mixed Breakfast on Metabolic and Neurofunctional Responses in Healthy Individuals

R. Codella, S. Benedini, S. Paini, A. Caumo, M. Adamo, I. Terruzzi, A. Ferrulli, C. MacRì, L. Andreoni, M. Sterlicchio, L. Luzi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


We investigated the effects of glucose and diverse breakfasts on glucose increment and ghrelin suppression and cognitive processing of sensory information assessed by frontal P300 evoked potentials. In a randomized crossover design, 12 healthy individuals (6M/6F; BMI 22.2 ± 0.4 kg/m2; 27 ± 1.3 years, mean ± SEM) underwent 50 g OGTT (A) and 3 breakfasts (B1: Milk and cereals; B2: Milk, apple, and chocolate cream-filled sponge cake; B3: Milk, apple, bread, and hazelnut chocolate cream) to assess plasma glucose-, insulin-, and ghrelin excursions. An electroencephalography was performed before and 100 min after consumption of each load to measure the latency of frontal P300 evoked potentials as index of cognitive performance. Breakfasts B1 and B2 exhibited significantly lower glycemic and insulinemic responses as compared to A. Breakfast B3 exhibited significantly lower glycemic, but not insulinemic response, as compared to A. Final plasma ghrelin inhibition was more pronounced, albeit not significantly, in all breakfasts with respect to A. P300 latency tended to decrease following each of the three breakfasts, but B3 was the only breakfast capable to elicit a statistically significant reduction in P300 latency with respect to A (p<0.01), suggesting ameliorated cognitive performance. Such amelioration was correlated with the 2-hour final inhibition of plasma ghrelin concentration (r=0.61, p=0.01). © 2017 Roberto Codella et al.
Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Diabetes Research
Publication statusPublished - 2017


  • ghrelin
  • glucose
  • insulin
  • adult
  • apple
  • Article
  • body mass
  • brain function
  • bread
  • cereal
  • chocolate
  • cognition
  • controlled study
  • crossover procedure
  • electroencephalography
  • event related potential
  • evoked response
  • female
  • food intake
  • glucose blood level
  • hazelnut
  • human
  • insulin blood level
  • latent period
  • male
  • meal
  • milk
  • normal human
  • oral glucose tolerance test
  • pastry
  • randomized controlled trial
  • satiety


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