Effect of Tocilizumab vs Standard Care on Clinical Worsening in Patients Hospitalized With COVID-19 Pneumonia: A Randomized Clinical Trial

C. Salvarani, G. Dolci, M. Massari, D. F. Merlo, S. Cavuto, L. Savoldi, P. Bruzzi, F. Boni, L. Braglia, C. Turrà, P. F. Ballerini, R. Sciascia, L. Zammarchi, O. Para, P. G. Scotton, W. O. Inojosa, V. Ravagnani, N. D. Salerno, P. P. Sainaghi, A. BrignoneM. Codeluppi, E. Teopompi, M. Milesi, P. Bertomoro, N. Claudio, M. Salio, M. Falcone, G. Cenderello, L. Donghi, V. Del Bono, P. L. Colombelli, A. Angheben, A. Passaro, G. Secondo, R. Pascale, I. Piazza, N. Facciolongo, M. Costantini, RCT-TCZ-COVID-19 Study Group

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is threatening billions of people worldwide. Tocilizumab has shown promising results in retrospective studies in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia with a good safety profile.|To evaluate the effect of early tocilizumab administration vs standard therapy in preventing clinical worsening in patients hospitalized with COVID-19 pneumonia.|Prospective, open-label, randomized clinical trial that randomized patients hospitalized between March 31 and June 11, 2020, with COVID-19 pneumonia to receive tocilizumab or standard of care in 24 hospitals in Italy. Cases of COVID-19 were confirmed by polymerase chain reaction method with nasopharyngeal swab. Eligibility criteria included COVID-19 pneumonia documented by radiologic imaging, partial pressure of arterial oxygen to fraction of inspired oxygen (Pao2/Fio2) ratio between 200 and 300 mm Hg, and an inflammatory phenotype defined by fever and elevated C-reactive protein.|Patients in the experimental arm received intravenous tocilizumab within 8 hours from randomization (8 mg/kg up to a maximum of 800 mg), followed by a second dose after 12 hours. Patients in the control arm received supportive care following the protocols of each clinical center until clinical worsening and then could receive tocilizumab as a rescue therapy.|The primary composite outcome was defined as entry into the intensive care unit with invasive mechanical ventilation, death from all causes, or clinical aggravation documented by the finding of a Pao2/Fio2 ratio less than 150 mm Hg, whichever came first.|A total of 126 patients were randomized (60 to the tocilizumab group; 66 to the control group). The median (interquartile range) age was 60.0 (53.0-72.0) years, and the majority of patients were male (77 of 126, 61.1%). Three patients withdrew from the study, leaving 123 patients available for the intention-to-treat analyses. Seventeen patients of 60 (28.3%) in the tocilizumab arm and 17 of 63 (27.0%) in the standard care group showed clinical worsening within 14 days since randomization (rate ratio, 1.05; 95% CI, 0.59-1.86). Two patients in the experimental group and 1 in the control group died before 30 days from randomization, and 6 and 5 patients were intubated in the 2 groups, respectively. The trial was prematurely interrupted after an interim analysis for futility.|In this randomized clinical trial of hospitalized adult patients with COVID-19 pneumonia and Pao2/Fio2 ratio between 200 and 300 mm Hg who received tocilizumab, no benefit on disease progression was observed compared with standard care. Further blinded, placebo-controlled randomized clinical trials are needed to confirm the results and to evaluate possible applications of tocilizumab in different stages of the disease.|ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04346355; EudraCT Identifier: 2020-001386-37.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)24-31
Number of pages8
JournalJAMA Internal Medicine
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Oct 20 2020


  • Aged Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized Blood Gas Analysis C-Reactive Protein COVID-19 Disease Progression Early Termination of Clinical Trials Female Fever Hospital Mortality Hospitalization Humans Intensive Care Units Italy Male Medical Futility Middle Aged Receptors, Interleukin-6 Respiration, Artificial Respiratory Insufficiency SARS-CoV-2


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