Effectiveness and safety of long-term treatment with sulfonylureas in patients with neonatal diabetes due to KCNJ11 mutations: an international cohort study

Neonatal Diabetes International Collaborative Group

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

BACKGROUND: KCNJ11 mutations cause permanent neonatal diabetes through pancreatic ATP-sensitive potassium channel activation. 90% of patients successfully transfer from insulin to oral sulfonylureas with excellent initial glycaemic control; however, whether this control is maintained in the long term is unclear. Sulfonylurea failure is seen in about 44% of people with type 2 diabetes after 5 years of treatment. Therefore, we did a 10-year multicentre follow-up study of a large international cohort of patients with KCNJ11 permanent neonatal diabetes to address the key questions relating to long-term efficacy and safety of sulfonylureas in these patients.

METHODS: In this multicentre, international cohort study, all patients diagnosed with KCNJ11 permanent neonatal diabetes at five laboratories in Exeter (UK), Rome (Italy), Bergen (Norway), Paris (France), and Krakow (Poland), who transferred from insulin to oral sulfonylureas before Nov 30, 2006, were eligible for inclusion. Clinicians collected clinical characteristics and annual data relating to glycaemic control, sulfonylurea dose, severe hypoglycaemia, side-effects, diabetes complications, and growth. The main outcomes of interest were sulfonylurea failure, defined as permanent reintroduction of daily insulin, and metabolic control, specifically HbA1c and sulfonylurea dose. Neurological features associated with KCNJ11 permanent neonatal diabetes were also assessed. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02624817.

FINDINGS: 90 patients were identified as being eligible for inclusion and 81 were enrolled in the study and provided long-term (>5·5 years cut-off) outcome data. Median follow-up duration for the whole cohort was 10·2 years (IQR 9·3-10·8). At most recent follow-up (between Dec 1, 2012, and Oct 4, 2016), 75 (93%) of 81 participants remained on sulfonylurea therapy alone. Excellent glycaemic control was maintained for patients for whom we had paired data on HbA1c and sulfonylurea at all time points (ie, pre-transfer [for HbA1c], year 1, and most recent follow-up; n=64)-median HbA1c was 8·1% (IQR 7·2-9·2; 65·0 mmol/mol [55·2-77·1]) before transfer to sulfonylureas, 5·9% (5·4-6·5; 41·0 mmol/mol [35·5-47·5]; p<0·0001 vs pre-transfer) at 1 year, and 6·4% (5·9-7·3; 46·4 mmol/mol [41·0-56·3]; p<0·0001 vs year 1) at most recent follow-up (median 10·3 years [IQR 9·2-10·9]). In the same patients, median sulfonylurea dose at 1 year was 0·30 mg/kg per day (0·14-0·53) and at most recent follow-up visit was 0·23 mg/kg per day (0·12-0·41; p=0·03). No reports of severe hypoglycaemia were recorded in 809 patient-years of follow-up for the whole cohort (n=81). 11 (14%) patients reported mild, transient side-effects, but did not need to stop sulfonylurea therapy. Seven (9%) patients had microvascular complications; these patients had been taking insulin longer than those without complications (median age at transfer to sulfonylureas 20·5 years [IQR 10·5-24·0] vs 4·1 years [1·3-10·2]; p=0·0005). Initial improvement was noted following transfer to sulfonylureas in 18 (47%) of 38 patients with CNS features. After long-term therapy with sulfonylureas, CNS features were seen in 52 (64%) of 81 patients.

INTERPRETATION: High-dose sulfonylurea therapy is an appropriate treatment for patients with KCNJ11 permanent neonatal diabetes from diagnosis. This therapy is safe and highly effective, maintaining excellent glycaemic control for at least 10 years.

FUNDING: Wellcome Trust, Diabetes UK, Royal Society, European Research Council, Norwegian Research Council, Kristian Gerhard Jebsen Foundation, Western Norway Regional Health Authority, Southern and Eastern Norway Regional Health Authority, Italian Ministry of Health, Aide aux Jeunes Diabetiques, Societe Francophone du Diabete, Ipsen, Slovak Research and Development Agency, and Research and Development Operational Programme funded by the European Regional Development Fund.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)637-646
Number of pages10
JournalThe Lancet Diabetes and Endocrinology
Volume6
Issue number8
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2018

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Cohort Studies
Safety
Mutation
Therapeutics
Norway
Insulin
Research
Hypoglycemia
Health
Patient Transfer
KATP Channels
Paris
Poland
Diabetes Complications
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Italy
France

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Effectiveness and safety of long-term treatment with sulfonylureas in patients with neonatal diabetes due to KCNJ11 mutations : an international cohort study. / Neonatal Diabetes International Collaborative Group.

In: The Lancet Diabetes and Endocrinology, Vol. 6, No. 8, 08.2018, p. 637-646.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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title = "Effectiveness and safety of long-term treatment with sulfonylureas in patients with neonatal diabetes due to KCNJ11 mutations: an international cohort study",
abstract = "BACKGROUND: KCNJ11 mutations cause permanent neonatal diabetes through pancreatic ATP-sensitive potassium channel activation. 90{\%} of patients successfully transfer from insulin to oral sulfonylureas with excellent initial glycaemic control; however, whether this control is maintained in the long term is unclear. Sulfonylurea failure is seen in about 44{\%} of people with type 2 diabetes after 5 years of treatment. Therefore, we did a 10-year multicentre follow-up study of a large international cohort of patients with KCNJ11 permanent neonatal diabetes to address the key questions relating to long-term efficacy and safety of sulfonylureas in these patients.METHODS: In this multicentre, international cohort study, all patients diagnosed with KCNJ11 permanent neonatal diabetes at five laboratories in Exeter (UK), Rome (Italy), Bergen (Norway), Paris (France), and Krakow (Poland), who transferred from insulin to oral sulfonylureas before Nov 30, 2006, were eligible for inclusion. Clinicians collected clinical characteristics and annual data relating to glycaemic control, sulfonylurea dose, severe hypoglycaemia, side-effects, diabetes complications, and growth. The main outcomes of interest were sulfonylurea failure, defined as permanent reintroduction of daily insulin, and metabolic control, specifically HbA1c and sulfonylurea dose. Neurological features associated with KCNJ11 permanent neonatal diabetes were also assessed. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02624817.FINDINGS: 90 patients were identified as being eligible for inclusion and 81 were enrolled in the study and provided long-term (>5·5 years cut-off) outcome data. Median follow-up duration for the whole cohort was 10·2 years (IQR 9·3-10·8). At most recent follow-up (between Dec 1, 2012, and Oct 4, 2016), 75 (93{\%}) of 81 participants remained on sulfonylurea therapy alone. Excellent glycaemic control was maintained for patients for whom we had paired data on HbA1c and sulfonylurea at all time points (ie, pre-transfer [for HbA1c], year 1, and most recent follow-up; n=64)-median HbA1c was 8·1{\%} (IQR 7·2-9·2; 65·0 mmol/mol [55·2-77·1]) before transfer to sulfonylureas, 5·9{\%} (5·4-6·5; 41·0 mmol/mol [35·5-47·5]; p<0·0001 vs pre-transfer) at 1 year, and 6·4{\%} (5·9-7·3; 46·4 mmol/mol [41·0-56·3]; p<0·0001 vs year 1) at most recent follow-up (median 10·3 years [IQR 9·2-10·9]). In the same patients, median sulfonylurea dose at 1 year was 0·30 mg/kg per day (0·14-0·53) and at most recent follow-up visit was 0·23 mg/kg per day (0·12-0·41; p=0·03). No reports of severe hypoglycaemia were recorded in 809 patient-years of follow-up for the whole cohort (n=81). 11 (14{\%}) patients reported mild, transient side-effects, but did not need to stop sulfonylurea therapy. Seven (9{\%}) patients had microvascular complications; these patients had been taking insulin longer than those without complications (median age at transfer to sulfonylureas 20·5 years [IQR 10·5-24·0] vs 4·1 years [1·3-10·2]; p=0·0005). Initial improvement was noted following transfer to sulfonylureas in 18 (47{\%}) of 38 patients with CNS features. After long-term therapy with sulfonylureas, CNS features were seen in 52 (64{\%}) of 81 patients.INTERPRETATION: High-dose sulfonylurea therapy is an appropriate treatment for patients with KCNJ11 permanent neonatal diabetes from diagnosis. This therapy is safe and highly effective, maintaining excellent glycaemic control for at least 10 years.FUNDING: Wellcome Trust, Diabetes UK, Royal Society, European Research Council, Norwegian Research Council, Kristian Gerhard Jebsen Foundation, Western Norway Regional Health Authority, Southern and Eastern Norway Regional Health Authority, Italian Ministry of Health, Aide aux Jeunes Diabetiques, Societe Francophone du Diabete, Ipsen, Slovak Research and Development Agency, and Research and Development Operational Programme funded by the European Regional Development Fund.",
author = "{Neonatal Diabetes International Collaborative Group} and Pamela Bowman and {\AA}sta Sulen and Fabrizio Barbetti and Jacques Beltrand and Pernille Svalastoga and Ethel Codner and Tessmann, {Ellen H} and Juliusson, {Petur B} and Torild Skrivarhaug and Pearson, {Ewan R} and Flanagan, {Sarah E} and Tarig Babiker and Thomas, {Nicholas J} and Shepherd, {Maggie H} and Sian Ellard and Iwar Klimes and Magdalena Szopa and Michel Polak and Dario Iafusco and Hattersley, {Andrew T} and Nj{\o}lstad, {P{\aa}l R}",
note = "Copyright {\circledC} 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an Open Access article under the CC BY 4.0 license. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.",
year = "2018",
month = "8",
doi = "10.1016/S2213-8587(18)30106-2",
language = "English",
volume = "6",
pages = "637--646",
journal = "The Lancet Diabetes and Endocrinology",
issn = "2213-8587",
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TY - JOUR

T1 - Effectiveness and safety of long-term treatment with sulfonylureas in patients with neonatal diabetes due to KCNJ11 mutations

T2 - an international cohort study

AU - Neonatal Diabetes International Collaborative Group

AU - Bowman, Pamela

AU - Sulen, Åsta

AU - Barbetti, Fabrizio

AU - Beltrand, Jacques

AU - Svalastoga, Pernille

AU - Codner, Ethel

AU - Tessmann, Ellen H

AU - Juliusson, Petur B

AU - Skrivarhaug, Torild

AU - Pearson, Ewan R

AU - Flanagan, Sarah E

AU - Babiker, Tarig

AU - Thomas, Nicholas J

AU - Shepherd, Maggie H

AU - Ellard, Sian

AU - Klimes, Iwar

AU - Szopa, Magdalena

AU - Polak, Michel

AU - Iafusco, Dario

AU - Hattersley, Andrew T

AU - Njølstad, Pål R

N1 - Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an Open Access article under the CC BY 4.0 license. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

PY - 2018/8

Y1 - 2018/8

N2 - BACKGROUND: KCNJ11 mutations cause permanent neonatal diabetes through pancreatic ATP-sensitive potassium channel activation. 90% of patients successfully transfer from insulin to oral sulfonylureas with excellent initial glycaemic control; however, whether this control is maintained in the long term is unclear. Sulfonylurea failure is seen in about 44% of people with type 2 diabetes after 5 years of treatment. Therefore, we did a 10-year multicentre follow-up study of a large international cohort of patients with KCNJ11 permanent neonatal diabetes to address the key questions relating to long-term efficacy and safety of sulfonylureas in these patients.METHODS: In this multicentre, international cohort study, all patients diagnosed with KCNJ11 permanent neonatal diabetes at five laboratories in Exeter (UK), Rome (Italy), Bergen (Norway), Paris (France), and Krakow (Poland), who transferred from insulin to oral sulfonylureas before Nov 30, 2006, were eligible for inclusion. Clinicians collected clinical characteristics and annual data relating to glycaemic control, sulfonylurea dose, severe hypoglycaemia, side-effects, diabetes complications, and growth. The main outcomes of interest were sulfonylurea failure, defined as permanent reintroduction of daily insulin, and metabolic control, specifically HbA1c and sulfonylurea dose. Neurological features associated with KCNJ11 permanent neonatal diabetes were also assessed. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02624817.FINDINGS: 90 patients were identified as being eligible for inclusion and 81 were enrolled in the study and provided long-term (>5·5 years cut-off) outcome data. Median follow-up duration for the whole cohort was 10·2 years (IQR 9·3-10·8). At most recent follow-up (between Dec 1, 2012, and Oct 4, 2016), 75 (93%) of 81 participants remained on sulfonylurea therapy alone. Excellent glycaemic control was maintained for patients for whom we had paired data on HbA1c and sulfonylurea at all time points (ie, pre-transfer [for HbA1c], year 1, and most recent follow-up; n=64)-median HbA1c was 8·1% (IQR 7·2-9·2; 65·0 mmol/mol [55·2-77·1]) before transfer to sulfonylureas, 5·9% (5·4-6·5; 41·0 mmol/mol [35·5-47·5]; p<0·0001 vs pre-transfer) at 1 year, and 6·4% (5·9-7·3; 46·4 mmol/mol [41·0-56·3]; p<0·0001 vs year 1) at most recent follow-up (median 10·3 years [IQR 9·2-10·9]). In the same patients, median sulfonylurea dose at 1 year was 0·30 mg/kg per day (0·14-0·53) and at most recent follow-up visit was 0·23 mg/kg per day (0·12-0·41; p=0·03). No reports of severe hypoglycaemia were recorded in 809 patient-years of follow-up for the whole cohort (n=81). 11 (14%) patients reported mild, transient side-effects, but did not need to stop sulfonylurea therapy. Seven (9%) patients had microvascular complications; these patients had been taking insulin longer than those without complications (median age at transfer to sulfonylureas 20·5 years [IQR 10·5-24·0] vs 4·1 years [1·3-10·2]; p=0·0005). Initial improvement was noted following transfer to sulfonylureas in 18 (47%) of 38 patients with CNS features. After long-term therapy with sulfonylureas, CNS features were seen in 52 (64%) of 81 patients.INTERPRETATION: High-dose sulfonylurea therapy is an appropriate treatment for patients with KCNJ11 permanent neonatal diabetes from diagnosis. This therapy is safe and highly effective, maintaining excellent glycaemic control for at least 10 years.FUNDING: Wellcome Trust, Diabetes UK, Royal Society, European Research Council, Norwegian Research Council, Kristian Gerhard Jebsen Foundation, Western Norway Regional Health Authority, Southern and Eastern Norway Regional Health Authority, Italian Ministry of Health, Aide aux Jeunes Diabetiques, Societe Francophone du Diabete, Ipsen, Slovak Research and Development Agency, and Research and Development Operational Programme funded by the European Regional Development Fund.

AB - BACKGROUND: KCNJ11 mutations cause permanent neonatal diabetes through pancreatic ATP-sensitive potassium channel activation. 90% of patients successfully transfer from insulin to oral sulfonylureas with excellent initial glycaemic control; however, whether this control is maintained in the long term is unclear. Sulfonylurea failure is seen in about 44% of people with type 2 diabetes after 5 years of treatment. Therefore, we did a 10-year multicentre follow-up study of a large international cohort of patients with KCNJ11 permanent neonatal diabetes to address the key questions relating to long-term efficacy and safety of sulfonylureas in these patients.METHODS: In this multicentre, international cohort study, all patients diagnosed with KCNJ11 permanent neonatal diabetes at five laboratories in Exeter (UK), Rome (Italy), Bergen (Norway), Paris (France), and Krakow (Poland), who transferred from insulin to oral sulfonylureas before Nov 30, 2006, were eligible for inclusion. Clinicians collected clinical characteristics and annual data relating to glycaemic control, sulfonylurea dose, severe hypoglycaemia, side-effects, diabetes complications, and growth. The main outcomes of interest were sulfonylurea failure, defined as permanent reintroduction of daily insulin, and metabolic control, specifically HbA1c and sulfonylurea dose. Neurological features associated with KCNJ11 permanent neonatal diabetes were also assessed. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02624817.FINDINGS: 90 patients were identified as being eligible for inclusion and 81 were enrolled in the study and provided long-term (>5·5 years cut-off) outcome data. Median follow-up duration for the whole cohort was 10·2 years (IQR 9·3-10·8). At most recent follow-up (between Dec 1, 2012, and Oct 4, 2016), 75 (93%) of 81 participants remained on sulfonylurea therapy alone. Excellent glycaemic control was maintained for patients for whom we had paired data on HbA1c and sulfonylurea at all time points (ie, pre-transfer [for HbA1c], year 1, and most recent follow-up; n=64)-median HbA1c was 8·1% (IQR 7·2-9·2; 65·0 mmol/mol [55·2-77·1]) before transfer to sulfonylureas, 5·9% (5·4-6·5; 41·0 mmol/mol [35·5-47·5]; p<0·0001 vs pre-transfer) at 1 year, and 6·4% (5·9-7·3; 46·4 mmol/mol [41·0-56·3]; p<0·0001 vs year 1) at most recent follow-up (median 10·3 years [IQR 9·2-10·9]). In the same patients, median sulfonylurea dose at 1 year was 0·30 mg/kg per day (0·14-0·53) and at most recent follow-up visit was 0·23 mg/kg per day (0·12-0·41; p=0·03). No reports of severe hypoglycaemia were recorded in 809 patient-years of follow-up for the whole cohort (n=81). 11 (14%) patients reported mild, transient side-effects, but did not need to stop sulfonylurea therapy. Seven (9%) patients had microvascular complications; these patients had been taking insulin longer than those without complications (median age at transfer to sulfonylureas 20·5 years [IQR 10·5-24·0] vs 4·1 years [1·3-10·2]; p=0·0005). Initial improvement was noted following transfer to sulfonylureas in 18 (47%) of 38 patients with CNS features. After long-term therapy with sulfonylureas, CNS features were seen in 52 (64%) of 81 patients.INTERPRETATION: High-dose sulfonylurea therapy is an appropriate treatment for patients with KCNJ11 permanent neonatal diabetes from diagnosis. This therapy is safe and highly effective, maintaining excellent glycaemic control for at least 10 years.FUNDING: Wellcome Trust, Diabetes UK, Royal Society, European Research Council, Norwegian Research Council, Kristian Gerhard Jebsen Foundation, Western Norway Regional Health Authority, Southern and Eastern Norway Regional Health Authority, Italian Ministry of Health, Aide aux Jeunes Diabetiques, Societe Francophone du Diabete, Ipsen, Slovak Research and Development Agency, and Research and Development Operational Programme funded by the European Regional Development Fund.

U2 - 10.1016/S2213-8587(18)30106-2

DO - 10.1016/S2213-8587(18)30106-2

M3 - Article

C2 - 29880308

VL - 6

SP - 637

EP - 646

JO - The Lancet Diabetes and Endocrinology

JF - The Lancet Diabetes and Endocrinology

SN - 2213-8587

IS - 8

ER -