An 11-year-old girl was referred for an irresistible urge to move her legs associated with uncomfortable sensations. She was diagnosed with definite Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS) according to 2003 NIH criteria. The IRLSSG severity scale score was 31 (very severe). The girl also presented with dysthymic disorder according to DSM-IV criteria, as confirmed by the semi-structured interview Kiddie-SADS-PL. The score on the Children Depression Inventory (CDI) was in the clinical range (21). The total score on the Sleep Disturbance Scale for Children (SDSC) was 100. A standard PSG revealed a periodic limb movement index of 16.5, indicating that the child also presented with Periodic Limb Movements Disorder. The girl was treated with ropinirole (a D2/D3 dopamine agonist). After 3 months of treatment (0.50 mg/day at 8.00 PM), RLS, as well as depressive symptoms, remarkably improved, as suggested by the improvement in the IRLSSG severity and CDI scores (14 and 4, respectively). No side effects were reported. The total score on the SDSC also improved (73). The PLM index did not remarkably change. We strongly recommend double blind, randomized, controlled studies to gain insight into the effective treatment strategies for RLS and depression when they coexist in children.
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