Effects of autonomic ganglion blockade on fractal and spectral components of blood pressure and heart rate variability in free-moving rats

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Abstract

Fractal analysis is a promising tool for assessing autonomic influences on heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) variability. The temporal spectrum of scale coefficients, α( t), was recently proposed to describe the cardiovascular fractal dynamics. Aim of our work is to evaluate sympathetic influences on cardiovascular variability analyzing α( t) and spectral powers of HR and BP after ganglionic blockade. BP was recorded in 11 rats before and after autonomic blockade by hexamethonium infusion (HEX). Systolic and diastolic BP, pulse pressure and pulse interval were derived beat-by-beat. Segments longer than 5. min were selected at baseline and HEX to estimate power spectra and α( t). Comparisons were made by paired t-test. HEX reduced all spectral components of systolic and diastolic BP, the reduction being particularly significant around the frequency of Mayer waves; it induced a reduction on α( t) coefficients at t <2. s and an increase on coefficients at t > 8. s. HEX reduced only slower components of pulse interval power spectrum, but decreased significantly faster scale coefficients (t <8. s). HEX only marginally affected pulse pressure variability. Results indicate that the sympathetic outflow contributes to BP fractal dynamics with fractional Gaussian noise (α <1) at longer scales and fractional Brownian motion (α > 1) at shorter scales. Ganglionic blockade also removes a fractional Brownian motion component at shorter scales from HR dynamics. Results may be explained by the characteristic time constants between sympathetic efferent activity and cardiovascular effectors. Therefore fractal analysis may complete spectral analysis with information on the correlation structure of the data.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)44-49
Number of pages6
JournalAutonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical
Volume178
Issue number1-2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2013

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Autonomic Ganglia
Fractals
Heart Rate
Blood Pressure
Hexamethonium

Keywords

  • Blood pressure
  • DFA
  • Power spectra
  • Pulse pressure
  • Sympathetic blockade

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology
  • Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience
  • Endocrine and Autonomic Systems

Cite this

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title = "Effects of autonomic ganglion blockade on fractal and spectral components of blood pressure and heart rate variability in free-moving rats",
abstract = "Fractal analysis is a promising tool for assessing autonomic influences on heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) variability. The temporal spectrum of scale coefficients, α( t), was recently proposed to describe the cardiovascular fractal dynamics. Aim of our work is to evaluate sympathetic influences on cardiovascular variability analyzing α( t) and spectral powers of HR and BP after ganglionic blockade. BP was recorded in 11 rats before and after autonomic blockade by hexamethonium infusion (HEX). Systolic and diastolic BP, pulse pressure and pulse interval were derived beat-by-beat. Segments longer than 5. min were selected at baseline and HEX to estimate power spectra and α( t). Comparisons were made by paired t-test. HEX reduced all spectral components of systolic and diastolic BP, the reduction being particularly significant around the frequency of Mayer waves; it induced a reduction on α( t) coefficients at t <2. s and an increase on coefficients at t > 8. s. HEX reduced only slower components of pulse interval power spectrum, but decreased significantly faster scale coefficients (t <8. s). HEX only marginally affected pulse pressure variability. Results indicate that the sympathetic outflow contributes to BP fractal dynamics with fractional Gaussian noise (α <1) at longer scales and fractional Brownian motion (α > 1) at shorter scales. Ganglionic blockade also removes a fractional Brownian motion component at shorter scales from HR dynamics. Results may be explained by the characteristic time constants between sympathetic efferent activity and cardiovascular effectors. Therefore fractal analysis may complete spectral analysis with information on the correlation structure of the data.",
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N2 - Fractal analysis is a promising tool for assessing autonomic influences on heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) variability. The temporal spectrum of scale coefficients, α( t), was recently proposed to describe the cardiovascular fractal dynamics. Aim of our work is to evaluate sympathetic influences on cardiovascular variability analyzing α( t) and spectral powers of HR and BP after ganglionic blockade. BP was recorded in 11 rats before and after autonomic blockade by hexamethonium infusion (HEX). Systolic and diastolic BP, pulse pressure and pulse interval were derived beat-by-beat. Segments longer than 5. min were selected at baseline and HEX to estimate power spectra and α( t). Comparisons were made by paired t-test. HEX reduced all spectral components of systolic and diastolic BP, the reduction being particularly significant around the frequency of Mayer waves; it induced a reduction on α( t) coefficients at t <2. s and an increase on coefficients at t > 8. s. HEX reduced only slower components of pulse interval power spectrum, but decreased significantly faster scale coefficients (t <8. s). HEX only marginally affected pulse pressure variability. Results indicate that the sympathetic outflow contributes to BP fractal dynamics with fractional Gaussian noise (α <1) at longer scales and fractional Brownian motion (α > 1) at shorter scales. Ganglionic blockade also removes a fractional Brownian motion component at shorter scales from HR dynamics. Results may be explained by the characteristic time constants between sympathetic efferent activity and cardiovascular effectors. Therefore fractal analysis may complete spectral analysis with information on the correlation structure of the data.

AB - Fractal analysis is a promising tool for assessing autonomic influences on heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) variability. The temporal spectrum of scale coefficients, α( t), was recently proposed to describe the cardiovascular fractal dynamics. Aim of our work is to evaluate sympathetic influences on cardiovascular variability analyzing α( t) and spectral powers of HR and BP after ganglionic blockade. BP was recorded in 11 rats before and after autonomic blockade by hexamethonium infusion (HEX). Systolic and diastolic BP, pulse pressure and pulse interval were derived beat-by-beat. Segments longer than 5. min were selected at baseline and HEX to estimate power spectra and α( t). Comparisons were made by paired t-test. HEX reduced all spectral components of systolic and diastolic BP, the reduction being particularly significant around the frequency of Mayer waves; it induced a reduction on α( t) coefficients at t <2. s and an increase on coefficients at t > 8. s. HEX reduced only slower components of pulse interval power spectrum, but decreased significantly faster scale coefficients (t <8. s). HEX only marginally affected pulse pressure variability. Results indicate that the sympathetic outflow contributes to BP fractal dynamics with fractional Gaussian noise (α <1) at longer scales and fractional Brownian motion (α > 1) at shorter scales. Ganglionic blockade also removes a fractional Brownian motion component at shorter scales from HR dynamics. Results may be explained by the characteristic time constants between sympathetic efferent activity and cardiovascular effectors. Therefore fractal analysis may complete spectral analysis with information on the correlation structure of the data.

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