Effects of encapsulated fruit and vegetable juice powder concentrates on oxidative status in heavy smokers

Cristina Novembrino, Giuliana Cighetti, Rachele De Giuseppe, Luisella Vigna, Federica de Liso, Marco Pellegatta, Dario Gregori, Rita Maiavacca, Fabrizia Bamonti

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objective: Long-term cigarette smoking has negative effects on oxidative status, promoting low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation and formation of lipid peroxides. We evaluated the effects of 2 different encapsulated formulas, consisting primarily of mixed juice powder concentrate, on oxidative status compared with placebo. Methods: This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was performed on 101 apparently healthy heavy smokers (>20 cigarettes/d, duration >10 years; median age 47 years, range 41-57 years; 54 M) before and after 3 months' supplementation. Subjects were randomized into 3 groups, well matched for sex and age: (1) placebo; (2) fruit/vegetable (FV); and (3) fruit/vegetable/berry (FVB). Analysis of oxidative status was performed on 75 (46 M) compliant subjects (.95% of assigned capsules). Changes in lipid panel parameters, oxidative- INDEX (Oxy-I, calculated on the basis of serum hydroperoxides and total antioxidant capacity measured by spectrophotometric methods), oxidized-LDL (ox-LDL; enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA] method), and malondialdehyde (MDA; gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method) in free (fMDA), bound (bMDA), and total (tMDA = fMDA {thorn} bMDA) forms are reported. Statistical analysis was performed with R statistical software. Results: After supplementation, compared with placebo, both FV and FVB groups showed a significant decrease in total cholesterol (p<0.05), ox-LDL (p = 0.03), and fMDA levels (p = 0.004) accompanied by a slight increase in bMDA concentrations, possibly as the result of fMDA conjugation. Moreover, a significant decrease in Oxy-I was found in both active groups compared with placebo (p, 0.001). Conclusion: Intervention with both nutraceutical formulations resulted in improvement in some oxidative alterations attributed to long-term cigarette smoking.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)49-56
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of the American College of Nutrition
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2011


  • Cigarette smoking
  • Lipid peroxidation
  • Nutraceutical supplementation
  • Oxidative status

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Nutrition and Dietetics


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