Effects of inspiratory muscle-training intensity on cardiovascular control in amateur cyclists

Raphael Martins de Abreu, Alberto Porta, Patricia Rehder-Santos, Beatrice Cairo, Claudio Donisete da Silva, Étore De Favari Signini, Camila Akemi Sakaguchi, Aparecida Maria Catai

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Chronic effects of inspiratory muscle training (IMT) on autonomic function and baroreflex regulation are poorly studied. This study aims at evaluating chronic effects of different IMT intensities on cardiovascular control in amateur cyclists. A longitudinal, randomized, controlled blind study was performed on 30 recreational male cyclists undergoing IMT for 11 wk. Participants were randomly allocated into sham-trained group (SHAM, n = 9), trained group at 60% of the maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP60, n = 10), and trained group at critical inspiratory pressure (CIP, n = 11). Electrocardiogram, finger arterial pressure, and respiratory movements were recorded before (PRE) and after (POST) training at rest in supine position (REST) and during active standing (STAND). From the beat-to-beat series of heart period (HP) and systolic arterial pressure (SAP), we computed time domain markers, frequency domain indexes in the low frequency (0.04-0.15 Hz) and high frequency (HF, 0.15-0.4 Hz) bands, an entropy-based complexity index (CI), and baroreflex markers estimated from spontaneous HP-SAP sequences. Compared with SHAM, the positive effect of MIP60 over the HP series led to the HF power increase during REST (PRE: 521.2 ± 447.5 ms2; POST: 1,161 ± 878.9 ms2) and the CI rise during STAND (PRE: 0.82 ± 0.18; POST: 0.97 ± 0.13). Conversely, the negative effect of CIP took the form of the decreased HP mean during STAND (PRE: 791 ± 71 ms; POST: 737 ± 95 ms). No effect of IMT was visible over SAP and baroreflex markers. These findings suggest that moderate-intensity IMT might be beneficial when the goal is to limit cardiac sympathetic hyperactivity at REST and/or in response to STAND.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)R891-R902
JournalAmerican journal of physiology. Regulatory, integrative and comparative physiology
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - Dec 1 2019


  • arterial pressure
  • autonomic nervous system
  • baroreflex
  • breathing exercise
  • complexity
  • heart rate variability
  • sport medicine

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physiology
  • Physiology (medical)


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