Background Trigeminal sensitization represents a major mechanism underlying migraine attacks and their recurrence. Nitroglycerin (NTG) administration provokes spontaneous migraine-like headaches and in rat, an increased sensitivity to the formalin test. Kynurenic acid (KYNA), an endogenous regulator of glutamate activity and its analogues attenuate NTG-induced neuronal activation in the nucleus trigeminalis caudalis (NTC). The anti-hyperalgesic effect of KYNA analogue 1 (KYNA-A1) was investigated on animal models specific for migraine pain. Aim Rats made hyperalgesic by NTG administration underwent the plantar or orofacial formalin tests. The effect of KYNA-A1 was evaluated in terms of nocifensive behavior and of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and cytokines expression in areas involved in trigeminal nociception. Results KYNA-A1 abolished NTG-induced hyperalgesia in both pain models; NTG alone or associated to formalin injection induced an increased mRNA expression of CGRP, nNOS and cytokines in the trigeminal ganglia and central areas, which was reduced by KYNA-A1. Additionally, NTG caused a significant increase in nNOS immunoreactivity in the NTC, which was prevented by KYNA-A1. Conclusion Glutamate activity is likely involved in mediating hyperalgesia in an animal model specific for migraine. Its inhibition by means of a KYNA analogue modulates nNOS, CGRP and cytokines expression at peripheral and central levels.
- Journal Article