Effects of listening to music in digestive endoscopy: A prospective intervention study led by nursing: Journal of Advanced Nursing

R. Spagnuolo, A. Corea, M. Blumetti, A. Giovinazzo, M. Serafino, C. Pagliuso, R. Pagnotta, G. Curto, C. Cosco, V. Cosco, R.M. Mancina, P. Garieri, A. Papaleo, L. Grande, A. Barilaro, E. Garofalo, A. Bruni, P. Doldo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Aims: To explore whether music can reduce anxiety and pain in patients who underwent diagnostic endoscopic examinations in conscious and deep sedation and to assess degree of satisfaction and willingness to repeat the procedure. Design: Prospective study led by nursing. Methods: Between March 2019–June 2019, consecutive outpatients undergoing endoscopic examinations were simple matched into four groups: Group 1: conscious sedation with music; Group 2: conscious sedation without music; Group 3: deep sedation with music and Group 4: deep sedation without music. Ten minutes before the procedure, two trainee nurses applied music. State-Trait Anxiety Inventory was used to evaluate anxiety. Results: Before and at the end of the procedure, patients who listened to music had a lower level anxiety than those who did not listen and, also, reported lower pain intensity during procedure. Only within Group 1 median anxiety, measured after the procedure, is lower than that measured before. In the bivariate logistic regression model, pain and listening to music were independent factors for satisfaction and willingness to repeat procedure. Conclusion: music in digestive endoscopy reduce pain and anxiety in conscious sedation, thus could be used to reduce anxiety in support to conscious sedation leading to lower usage of deep sedation and consequently reduction of costs and adverse events. Impact: Anxiety in digestive endoscopy limits patients’ satisfaction. Music in digestive endoscopy as a specific nursing intervention could reduce anxiety of patients. This nursing intervention study confirms positive effect of music in digestive endoscopy. As part of nursing management, the addition of music to daily care practice in digestive endoscopy may reduce anxiety and increase the patient's degree of satisfaction. Use of music could limit deep sedation use in digestive endoscopy with consequent reduction of risks for patients, execution times, and costs of procedures. © 2020 John Wiley & Sons Ltd
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2993-3002
Number of pages10
JournalJ. Adv. Nurs.
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 2020


  • anxiety
  • conscious sedation
  • deep sedation
  • digestive endoscopy
  • music
  • nursing intervention
  • nursing manner
  • nursing skill
  • pain management
  • adult
  • analgesia
  • article
  • clinical assessment
  • controlled study
  • endoscopy
  • female
  • human
  • intervention study
  • male
  • nurse
  • nursing competence
  • nursing management
  • outpatient
  • pain intensity
  • patient satisfaction
  • prospective study
  • repeat procedure
  • risk assessment
  • State Trait Anxiety Inventory


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