Effects of moderate variations in the macronutrient content of the diet on cardiovascular disease risk factors in obese patients with the metabolic syndrome

Fulvio Muzio, Luca Mondazzi, William S. Harris, Domenico Sommariva, Adriana Branchi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Background: The metabolic syndrome is a cluster of abnormalities that is accompanied by a 2-fold increase in the risk of cardiovascular disease. Even if there is full agreement that lifestyle changes to induce weight loss are the first-line approach, the ideal diet for the treatment of the metabolic syndrome remains uncertain. Objective: The objective was to compare the effects of 2 diets on cardiovascular disease risk factors in obese patients with the metabolic syndrome. Design: The study was carried out in 100 patients randomly assigned to either a diet relatively rich in carbohydrate [65% of energy as carbohydrate, 13% as protein, and 22% as fat (17% as unsaturated fat)] or a diet that was low in carbohydrate and high in protein and in monounsaturated fat [48% of energy as carbohydrate, 19% as protein, and 33% as fat (24% as unsaturated fat)]. Results: All 100 patients completed the 5-mo study. At the end of the study, all the components of the metabolic syndrome (except HDL, which did not change) decreased significantly in both groups. With the high-carbohydrate diet, a significant decrease in LDL-cholesterol concentrations was also observed. Although the extent of the resolution of the metabolic syndrome was not different between groups, the low-carbohydrate diet was associated with a greater decrease in the prevalence of hypertension (P <0.05) and of hypertriacylglycerolemia (P <0.001). Conclusion: Tailoring diet interventions to the specific presentation of the metabolic syndrome may be the best way of reducing the risk factors for cardiovascular disease.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)946-951
Number of pages6
JournalAmerican Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Volume86
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Oct 1 2007

Keywords

  • Blood pressure
  • Cardiovascular disease risk factors
  • Diet treatment
  • High-lipid diets
  • High-protein diets
  • Insulin resistance
  • Low-carbohydrate diets
  • Metabolic syndrome

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Food Science

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