Aims: We sought to conduct a meta-analysis regarding the safety and efficacy of sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors in patients with heart failure (HF). Methods and results: MEDLINE, Scopus, Cochrane CENTRAL, and ClinicalTrials.gov were searched from their inception to November 2020 for placebo-controlled randomized controlled trials of SGLT2 inhibitors. Randomized controlled trials were selected if they reported at least one of the prespecified outcomes in patients with HF. Hazard ratios (HRs) or risk ratios and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals were pooled using a random-effects model. A total of seven trials including 16 820 HF patients (N = 8884 in the SGLT2 inhibitor arms; N = 7936 in the placebo arms) were included. In the overall HF cohort, SGLT2 inhibitors compared with placebo significantly reduced the risk of the composite endpoint of first HF hospitalization or cardiovascular death [HR: 0.77 (0.72–0.83); P < 0.001; I2 = 0%], time to first HF hospitalization [HR: 0.71 (0.64–0.78); P < 0.001; I2 = 0], cardiovascular mortality [HR: 0.87 (0.79–0.96); P = 0.005; I2 = 0%], and all-cause mortality [HR: 0.89 (0.82–0.96); P = 0.004; I2 = 0%]. Results remained consistent across HF-specific trials and according to diabetes mellitus status. A trend towards benefit was observed in patients with HF with preserved ejection fraction for the composite of HF hospitalization and cardiovascular death [HR: 0.80 (0.63–1.00); P = 0.05; I2 = 29%]. No increased risk of hypovolaemia, hyperkalaemia, and hypotension was seen with SGLT2 inhibitors compared with placebo. Conclusions: SGLT2 inhibitors significantly improve cardiovascular outcomes including cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in patients with HF without an increased risk of serious adverse events. A trend towards benefit was observed in patients with HF with preserved ejection fraction.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine