Efficacy and safety of two dosages of canrenone as add-on therapy in hypertensive patients taking ace-inhibitors or angiotensin II receptor blockers and hydrochlorothiazide at maximum dosage in a randomized clinical trial

The ESCAPE-IT trial

Giuseppe Derosa, Pamela Maffioli, Maria D'Avino, Carla Sala, Amedeo Mugellini, Vito Vulpis, Salvatore Felis, Luigina Guasti, Riccardo Sarzani, Alessandro Bestetti, Massimo Vanasia, Giovanni Gaudio, the ESCAPE-IT Trial Investigators group

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

3 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Aim: To evaluate the effects of canrenone as add-on therapy in patients already treated with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE-I) or angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) and hydrochlorothiazide at the maximum dosage (25 mg/d). Method: In this randomized, open-label, controlled trial, we enrolled 175 Caucasian patients with essential hypertension not well controlled by concomitant ACE-I or ARBs and hydrochlorothiazide. At baseline, 87 patients (57 males and 30 females) were randomized to add canrenone 50 mg, and 88 (56 males and 32 females) patients to canrenone 100 mg, once a day, for 3 months. At baseline and after 3 months, we evaluated blood pressure (BP), pulse pressure (PP), heart rate (HR), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), homeostasis model assessment insulin (HOMA Index), lipid profile, electrolytes, uric acid, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), plasma urea, aldosterone, B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP), and galectin-3. Results: Blood pressure decreased with both dosages of canrenone, with a better effect with canrenone 100 mg (−20.26 vs −23.68 mm Hg for SBP, and −10.58 vs −12.38 mm Hg for DBP), without a clinically relevant increase in potassium levels. We did not observe any differences regarding FPG or HOMA Index, nor of lipid profile, with the exception of triglycerides, which increased compared to baseline with canrenone 50 mg (+0.25 vs +0.34 mEq/L). Creatinine slightly increased with canrenone 100 mg (+0.02 vs +0.05 mg/dL), although no variations of eGFR were observed in neither groups. There was an increase in aldosterone levels with canrenone 50 mg. No changes in BNP or galectin-3 were recorded. Conclusion: Both canrenone dosages gave a decrease in blood pressure, with a better effect with the higher dose, with only a slight increase in potassium and creatinine levels, which were not clinically relevant. Clinical Trials Registration Eudract number: 2010-023606-13; ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02687178.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)47-54
Number of pages8
JournalCardiovascular Therapeutics
Volume35
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Feb 1 2017

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Canrenone
Hydrochlorothiazide
Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists
Randomized Controlled Trials
Safety
Blood Pressure
Galectin 3
Therapeutics
Brain Natriuretic Peptide
Aldosterone
Glomerular Filtration Rate
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors
Fasting
Creatinine
Potassium
Lipids
Glucose
Uric Acid
Electrolytes
Urea

Keywords

  • Angiotensin II receptor blockers
  • Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors
  • Canrenone
  • Hydrochlorothiazide
  • Hypertension

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
  • Pharmacology (medical)

Cite this

Efficacy and safety of two dosages of canrenone as add-on therapy in hypertensive patients taking ace-inhibitors or angiotensin II receptor blockers and hydrochlorothiazide at maximum dosage in a randomized clinical trial : The ESCAPE-IT trial. / Derosa, Giuseppe; Maffioli, Pamela; D'Avino, Maria; Sala, Carla; Mugellini, Amedeo; Vulpis, Vito; Felis, Salvatore; Guasti, Luigina; Sarzani, Riccardo; Bestetti, Alessandro; Vanasia, Massimo; Gaudio, Giovanni; the ESCAPE-IT Trial Investigators group.

In: Cardiovascular Therapeutics, Vol. 35, No. 1, 01.02.2017, p. 47-54.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Derosa, Giuseppe ; Maffioli, Pamela ; D'Avino, Maria ; Sala, Carla ; Mugellini, Amedeo ; Vulpis, Vito ; Felis, Salvatore ; Guasti, Luigina ; Sarzani, Riccardo ; Bestetti, Alessandro ; Vanasia, Massimo ; Gaudio, Giovanni ; the ESCAPE-IT Trial Investigators group. / Efficacy and safety of two dosages of canrenone as add-on therapy in hypertensive patients taking ace-inhibitors or angiotensin II receptor blockers and hydrochlorothiazide at maximum dosage in a randomized clinical trial : The ESCAPE-IT trial. In: Cardiovascular Therapeutics. 2017 ; Vol. 35, No. 1. pp. 47-54.
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T2 - The ESCAPE-IT trial

AU - Derosa, Giuseppe

AU - Maffioli, Pamela

AU - D'Avino, Maria

AU - Sala, Carla

AU - Mugellini, Amedeo

AU - Vulpis, Vito

AU - Felis, Salvatore

AU - Guasti, Luigina

AU - Sarzani, Riccardo

AU - Bestetti, Alessandro

AU - Vanasia, Massimo

AU - Gaudio, Giovanni

AU - the ESCAPE-IT Trial Investigators group

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N2 - Aim: To evaluate the effects of canrenone as add-on therapy in patients already treated with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE-I) or angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) and hydrochlorothiazide at the maximum dosage (25 mg/d). Method: In this randomized, open-label, controlled trial, we enrolled 175 Caucasian patients with essential hypertension not well controlled by concomitant ACE-I or ARBs and hydrochlorothiazide. At baseline, 87 patients (57 males and 30 females) were randomized to add canrenone 50 mg, and 88 (56 males and 32 females) patients to canrenone 100 mg, once a day, for 3 months. At baseline and after 3 months, we evaluated blood pressure (BP), pulse pressure (PP), heart rate (HR), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), homeostasis model assessment insulin (HOMA Index), lipid profile, electrolytes, uric acid, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), plasma urea, aldosterone, B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP), and galectin-3. Results: Blood pressure decreased with both dosages of canrenone, with a better effect with canrenone 100 mg (−20.26 vs −23.68 mm Hg for SBP, and −10.58 vs −12.38 mm Hg for DBP), without a clinically relevant increase in potassium levels. We did not observe any differences regarding FPG or HOMA Index, nor of lipid profile, with the exception of triglycerides, which increased compared to baseline with canrenone 50 mg (+0.25 vs +0.34 mEq/L). Creatinine slightly increased with canrenone 100 mg (+0.02 vs +0.05 mg/dL), although no variations of eGFR were observed in neither groups. There was an increase in aldosterone levels with canrenone 50 mg. No changes in BNP or galectin-3 were recorded. Conclusion: Both canrenone dosages gave a decrease in blood pressure, with a better effect with the higher dose, with only a slight increase in potassium and creatinine levels, which were not clinically relevant. Clinical Trials Registration Eudract number: 2010-023606-13; ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02687178.

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KW - Angiotensin II receptor blockers

KW - Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors

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KW - Hydrochlorothiazide

KW - Hypertension

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