Efficacy of progressive muscle relaxation, mental imagery, and phantom exercise training on phantom limb: A randomized controlled trial

Stefano Brunelli, Giovanni Morone, Marco Iosa, Cristina Ciotti, Roberto De Giorgi, Calogero Foti, Marco Traballesi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Objective To evaluate the reduction in phantom pain and sensation with combined training of progressive muscle relaxation, mental imagery, and phantom exercises. Design Randomized controlled prospective trial with 2 parallel groups. Setting Amputee unit of a rehabilitation hospital. Participants Subjects with unilateral lower limb amputation (N=51) with phantom limb pain (PLP) and/or phantom limb sensation (PLS). Interventions The experimental group performed combined training of progressive muscle relaxation, mental imagery, and phantom exercises 2 times/wk for 4 weeks, whereas the control group had the same amount of physical therapy dedicated to the residual limb. No pharmacological intervention was initiated during the trial period. Main Outcome Measures The Prosthesis Evaluation Questionnaire and the Brief Pain Inventory were used to evaluate changes over time in different aspects (intensity, rate, duration, and bother) of PLS and PLP. Blind evaluations were performed before and after treatment and after 1-month follow-up. Results The experimental group showed a significant decrease over time in all the Prosthesis Evaluation Questionnaire domains (in terms of both PLS and PLP; P

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)181-187
Number of pages7
JournalArchives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Volume96
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Feb 1 2015

Keywords

  • Amputation
  • Chronic pain
  • Phantom limb
  • Rehabilitation
  • Sensation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Rehabilitation
  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation
  • Medicine(all)

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