Purpose: The purpose of this prospective clinical trial was to monitor the outcomes of periradicular surgery in large periapical lesions with or without guided tissue regeneration (GTR) and anorganic bovine bone. Materials and Methods: All teeth in the study revealed a periradicular lesion measuring at least 10 mm. A total of 63 teeth in 44 patients were included according to specific selection criteria. In the test group, after root end filling was completed, the defect was filled with anorganic bovine bone and was covered with a resorbable collagen membrane. In the control group, neither graft nor membrane was used. Results: A total of 59 teeth in 41 patients were evaluable at 1-year follow-up. Of these, 24 teeth belonged to the test group and 35 to the control group. Overall, 46 teeth (78%) had successfully healed, 10 (16.9%) demonstrated uncertain healing, and 3 exhibited treatment failure. Investigators found no statistically significant differences in outcome between test and control groups. Conclusions: The present study showed that the use of GTR in association with anorganic bovine bone in the treatment of patients with large periradicular lesions of strictly endodontic origin has no beneficial effect on outcome.
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