Evaluation of the Substrate in Genetic Atrial Arrhythmias. Introduction: Although atrial arrhythmiasmay have genetic causes, very few data are available on evaluation of the arrhythmic substrate in genetic atrial diseases in humans. In this study, we evaluate the nature and evolution of the atrial arrhythmic substrate in a genetic atrial cardiomyopathy.
Methods and Results: Repeated electroanatomic mapping and tomographic evaluations were used to investigate the evolving arrhythmic substrate in 5 patients with isolated arrhythmogenic atrial cardiomyopathy, caused by Natriuretic Peptide Precursor A (NPPA) gene mutation. Atrial fibrosis was assessed using late gadolinium enhancement magnetic resonance imaging (LGE-MRI). The substrate of atrial tachycardia (AT) and atrial fibrillation (AF) was biatrial dilatation with patchy areas of low voltage and atrial wall scarring (in the right atrium: 68.5%±6.0% and 22.2%±10.2%, respectively). The evolution of the arrhythmic patterns to sinus node disease with atrial standstill (AS) was associated with giant atria with extensive low voltage and atrial scarring areas (in the right atrium: 99.5% ± 0.7% and 57.5% ± 33.2%, respectively). LGE-MRI-proven biatrial fibrosis (Utah stage IV) was associated with AS. Atrial conduction was slow and heterogeneous, with lines of conduction blocks. The progressive extension and spatial distribution of the scarring/fibrosis were strictly associated with the different types of arrhythmias.
Conclusion: The evolution of the amount and distribution of atrial scarring/fibrosis constitutes the structural substrate for the different types of atrial arrhythmias in a pure genetic model of arrhythmogenic atrial cardiomyopathy.
- Atrial arrhythmias
- Atrial cardiomyopathy
- Atrial fibrosis
- Electroanatomic mapping
- Late gadolinium enhancement magnetic resonance imaging
- NPPA gene
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
- Physiology (medical)