Electrochemically induced anatase inhibits bacterial colonization on Titanium Grade 2 and Ti6Al4V alloy for dental and orthopedic devices

Carmen Giordano, Enrica Saino, Lia Rimondini, Maria Pia Pedeferri, Livia Visai, Alberto Cigada, Roberto Chiesa

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Bacterial contamination of implanted devices is a common cause of their failure. The aim of the present study was to assess the capability of electrochemical procedures to: (a) promote the formation of anatase on the surface of commercially pure Grade 2 Ti and Ti Grade 5 (Ti6Al4V) alloy; (b) inhibit in vitro biofilm formation of Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus mutans and Porphyromonas gingivalis and oral plaque in vivo, (c) preserve favorable response of osteoblasts and fibroblasts to materials surfaces. Ti Grade 2 and Ti Grade 5 were respectively anodized at two different voltages: 90 and 130 V for pure titanium; 100 and 120 V for Ti6Al4V alloy. Surface characterization was performed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with EDS probe, laser profilometry and X-ray diffractometry. Bacterial adhesion characterization was performed either in vitro and in vivo in patients. Osteoblast and fibroblast response was evaluated by metabolic activity assessment. The higher voltage applied in the anodization treatment of pure titanium (130 V) and Ti6Al4V alloy (120 V) surfaces, compared to the untreated pure titanium and Ti6Al4V and to lower voltage treatments, resulted in a greater decrease in bacterial attachment and biofilm formation in both in vitro and in vivo experiments. In contrast, the high voltage treatments were found to promote osteoblasts and fibroblasts proliferation. The observations indicated that the experimented high voltage anodization treatments may contribute to preserve the tissue integration and reduce bacteria colonization of titanium and titanium alloy for implantable applications.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)648-655
Number of pages8
JournalColloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Dec 1 2011


  • Anatase
  • Anodization
  • Biofilm
  • Cytocompatibility
  • Ti6Al4V alloy
  • Titanium dioxide

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biotechnology
  • Colloid and Surface Chemistry
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Surfaces and Interfaces


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