Electromotive administration of a new morphine formulation: Morphine citrate

R. Stephen, D. Miotti, R. Bettaglio, C. Rossi, C. Bonezzi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Two formulations of morphine citrate were synthesized: trimorphine citrate, 3(MH)+(C6H5O7)3- and morphine sodium citrate, 3(MH)+3Na+2(C6H5O7)3-. Four healthy individuals volunteered to undergo electromotive administration of the two formulations. Application of electric current (2 mA) to solutions of trimorphine citrate for 1 h resulted in iontophoretic transcutaneous administration of therapeutic quantities of morphine without deleterious reduction in the pH of the drug solutions. Application of a 2-mA current to solutions of morphine sodium citrate for 2 h resulted in combined iontophoretic and electrophoretic delivery of morphine with increased administration rates and an improved buffering capacity of the drug solutions.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)461-465
Number of pages5
JournalArtificial Organs
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 1994


  • Administration
  • Citrate
  • Drug
  • Electromotive
  • Morphine
  • pH

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biophysics


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