Electrophysiological measures, mainly standard multimodal evoked potentials (EPs), have been used for the assessment of central nervous system (CNS) function in multiple sclerosis (MS). Their abnormalities correspond well with clinical involvement of the pathways being investigated and also provide information on the nature of the pathologic process such as demyelination or axonal loss. Several studies have assessed their value in the diagnosis, monitoring, and prediction of the course of MS. Other measures, such as the analysis of spontaneous and induced brain oscillatory activity, cognitive potentials, or studies of motor cortical excitability and mapping of motor representation using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), may provide useful information about the pathophysiology of MS and related features such as cognitive involvement or fatigue. This chapter will review the application and usefulness of standard EPs and other neurophysiological techniques in MS. Standard evoked potentials (EPs) Evoked potentials in MS diagnosis and assessment of disease activity Multimodal EPs (visual, somatosensory, auditory, motor) provide functional information on eloquent CNS pathways. In MS, demyelination and axonal block or axonal loss lead to EP abnormalities such as delayed latency, morphological abnormalities, and an increased refractory period. A well-preserved wave morphology together with relevant latency delay is suggestive of a demyelinating disorder, although none of these abnormalities is specific to MS.
|Title of host publication||Multiple Sclerosis: Recovery of Function and Neurorehabilitation|
|Publisher||Cambridge University Press|
|Number of pages||8|
|ISBN (Print)||9780511781698, 9780521888325|
|Publication status||Published - Jan 1 2010|
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